Abstract

In this Letter we demonstrate broadband electro-optic modulation with frequencies of up to 40GHz in slotted photonic crystal waveguides based on silicon-on-insulator substrates covered and infiltrated with a nonlinear optical polymer. Two-dimensional photonic crystal waveguides in silicon enable integrated optical devices with an ex tremely small geometric footprint on the scale of micrometers. The slotted waveguide design optimizes the overlap of the optical and electric fields in the second-order nonlinear optical medium and, hence, the interaction of the optical and electric waves.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Wülbern, A. Petrov, and M. Eich, Opt. Express 17, 304 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, Y.-S. Chen, Y. Zhao, W. Jiang, and R. T. Chen, Opt. Lett. 34, 602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, Opt. Express 16, 4177 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, Y.-J. Cheng, Z. Shi, S. Hau, S.-H. Jang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Tian, B. Polishak, S. Huang, H. Ma, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 8091(2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. R. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2005

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

Andreani, L. C.

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. R. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43(2007).
[CrossRef]

Brosi, J. M.

Bruns, J.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.-S.

Cheng, Y.-J.

T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, Y.-J. Cheng, Z. Shi, S. Hau, S.-H. Jang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Tian, B. Polishak, S. Huang, H. Ma, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 8091(2008).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43(2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43(2007).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. R. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, Y.-J. Cheng, Z. Shi, S. Hau, S.-H. Jang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Tian, B. Polishak, S. Huang, H. Ma, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 8091(2008).
[CrossRef]

Davies, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. R. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Di Falco, A.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, R.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eich, M.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Wülbern, A. Petrov, and M. Eich, Opt. Express 17, 304 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erben, C.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, N. N.

Freude, W.

Gill, D. M.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopalan, P.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hampe, J.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hau, S.

T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, Y.-J. Cheng, Z. Shi, S. Hau, S.-H. Jang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Tian, B. Polishak, S. Huang, H. Ma, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 8091(2008).
[CrossRef]

Heber, J. D.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. R. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. R. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, Y.-J. Cheng, Z. Shi, S. Hau, S.-H. Jang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Tian, B. Polishak, S. Huang, H. Ma, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 8091(2008).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43(2007).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S.-H.

T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, Y.-J. Cheng, Z. Shi, S. Hau, S.-H. Jang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Tian, B. Polishak, S. Huang, H. Ma, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 8091(2008).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, Y.-J. Cheng, Z. Shi, S. Hau, S.-H. Jang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Tian, B. Polishak, S. Huang, H. Ma, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 8091(2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. R. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

Jin, D.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Katz, H. E.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, T.-D.

T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, Y.-J. Cheng, Z. Shi, S. Hau, S.-H. Jang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Tian, B. Polishak, S. Huang, H. Ma, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 8091(2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. R. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Koos, C.

Krauss, T. F.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuthold, J.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43(2007).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43(2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, Y.-J. Cheng, Z. Shi, S. Hau, S.-H. Jang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Tian, B. Polishak, S. Huang, H. Ma, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 8091(2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. R. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J. D.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, Y.-J. Cheng, Z. Shi, S. Hau, S.-H. Jang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Tian, B. Polishak, S. Huang, H. Ma, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 8091(2008).
[CrossRef]

Manipatruni, S.

McGee, D. J.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michel, J.

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43(2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43(2007).
[CrossRef]

Penkov, B.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. R. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Wülbern, A. Petrov, and M. Eich, Opt. Express 17, 304 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polishak, B.

T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, Y.-J. Cheng, Z. Shi, S. Hau, S.-H. Jang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Tian, B. Polishak, S. Huang, H. Ma, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 8091(2008).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43(2007).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. R. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Shakya, J.

Shi, Z.

T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, Y.-J. Cheng, Z. Shi, S. Hau, S.-H. Jang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Tian, B. Polishak, S. Huang, H. Ma, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 8091(2008).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, P.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. R. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R.

Takayesu, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. R. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, Y.-J. Cheng, Z. Shi, S. Hau, S.-H. Jang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Tian, B. Polishak, S. Huang, H. Ma, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 8091(2008).
[CrossRef]

Waldow, M.

Walker, C.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wülbern, J. H.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Wülbern, A. Petrov, and M. Eich, Opt. Express 17, 304 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

Xu, Q. F.

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, X.-H.

T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, Y.-J. Cheng, Z. Shi, S. Hau, S.-H. Jang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Tian, B. Polishak, S. Huang, H. Ma, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 8091(2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. R. Dalton, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Di Falco, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, Electron. Lett. 43(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

T.-D. Kim, J. Luo, Y.-J. Cheng, Z. Shi, S. Hau, S.-H. Jang, X.-H. Zhou, Y. Tian, B. Polishak, S. Huang, H. Ma, L. R. Dalton, and A. K.-Y. Jen, J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 8091(2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Science

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, Science 298, 1401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Available at www.cst.com.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top, band diagram of the PhC defect waveguide for TE polarized modes. The thick curve represents the defect mode, the thin curves represent the bulk PhC modes, the dashed curve indicates the position of the optical carrier signal, and the shaded gray region indicates the light cone. Bottom, scanning electron micrograph of the slotted PhC waveguide used for the rf modulation experiments (before the deposition of the NLO polymer). Also shown are the strip-to-slotted waveguide mode converters. The electric field is applied by metal electrodes placed on each side of the structure (not shown here).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectrum of a 30-lattice-constants long slotted PhC waveguide, infiltrated and covered with NLO polymer. Clearly seen is the transmission edge of the defect mode at 1533 nm . The input wavelength at 1533.2 nm is probing the steep part of the transmission curve.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical power spectra of the modulator output at several modulation frequencies measured with an optical spectrum analyzer. The spectral position of the sidebands relative to the optical carrier frequency confirms the EO modulation at microwave frequencies. The gray curve in the upper left plot shows the power spectrum without rf modulation. The 10 dB drop in the sideband power between 15 and 40 GHz is caused by a decrease of the delivered rf power by 6 dB as the frequency is increased from 15 to 40 GHz and a shift in the transmission spectrum due to thermal drift.

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