Abstract

The optical damage threshold of indentation-induced flaws on fused silica surfaces was explored. Mechanical flaws were characterized by laser damage testing, as well as by optical, secondary electron, and photoluminescence microscopy. Localized polishing, chemical leaching, and the control of indentation morphology were used to isolate the structural features that limit optical damage. A thin defect layer on fracture surfaces, including those smaller than the wavelength of visible light, was found to be the dominant source of laser damage initiation during illumination with 355nm, 3ns laser pulses. Little evidence was found that either displaced or densified material or fluence intensification plays a significant role in optical damage at fluences >35J/cm2. Elimination of the defect layer was shown to increase the overall damage performance of fused silica optics.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, Proc. SPIE 4679, 56 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Neauport, L. Lamaignere, H. Bercegol, F. Pilon, and J.-C. Birolleau, Opt. Express 13, 10163 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Miller, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, M. Feit, J. Menapace, P. Davis, and R. Steele, Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Suratwala, R. Steele, M. Feit, L. Wong, P. Miller, J. Menapace, and P. Davis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2023(2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. L. Wong, T. Suratwala, M. D. Feit, P. E. Miller, and R. Steele, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 797 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151114 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, and L. L. Chase, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2607 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. D. Feit and A. Rubenchik, Proc. SPIE 5273, 264 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Kokura, M. Tomozawa, and R. K. MacCrone, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 111, 269 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. R. Lawn, Fracture of Brittle Solids (Cambridge1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Yoshida, J. Sangleboeuf, and T. Rouxel, J. Mater. Res. 20, 3404 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, Calif. 94550, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces.”

2009 (3)

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Wong, T. Suratwala, M. D. Feit, P. E. Miller, and R. Steele, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 797 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

T. Suratwala, R. Steele, M. Feit, L. Wong, P. Miller, J. Menapace, and P. Davis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2023(2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

S. Yoshida, J. Sangleboeuf, and T. Rouxel, J. Mater. Res. 20, 3404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Neauport, L. Lamaignere, H. Bercegol, F. Pilon, and J.-C. Birolleau, Opt. Express 13, 10163 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Miller, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, M. Feit, J. Menapace, P. Davis, and R. Steele, Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. D. Feit and A. Rubenchik, Proc. SPIE 5273, 264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, Proc. SPIE 4679, 56 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

F. Y. Génin, A. Salleo, T. V. Pistor, and L. L. Chase, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18, 2607 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. Kokura, M. Tomozawa, and R. K. MacCrone, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 111, 269 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bercegol, H.

Birolleau, J.-C.

Bude, J. D.

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, Calif. 94550, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces.”

Carr, C. W.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, Calif. 94550, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces.”

Chase, L. L.

Davis, P.

T. Suratwala, R. Steele, M. Feit, L. Wong, P. Miller, J. Menapace, and P. Davis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2023(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Miller, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, M. Feit, J. Menapace, P. Davis, and R. Steele, Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Donohue, E. E.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M.

T. Suratwala, R. Steele, M. Feit, L. Wong, P. Miller, J. Menapace, and P. Davis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2023(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Miller, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, M. Feit, J. Menapace, P. Davis, and R. Steele, Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Wong, T. Suratwala, M. D. Feit, P. E. Miller, and R. Steele, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 797 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit and A. Rubenchik, Proc. SPIE 5273, 264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, Calif. 94550, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces.”

Feldman, T.

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Génin, F. Y.

Golini, D.

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, Proc. SPIE 4679, 56 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Herman, S.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hrubesh, L. W.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kokura, K.

K. Kokura, M. Tomozawa, and R. K. MacCrone, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 111, 269 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kozlowski, M. R.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lamaignere, L.

Laurence, T. A.

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, Calif. 94550, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces.”

Lawn, B. R.

B. R. Lawn, Fracture of Brittle Solids (Cambridge1993).
[CrossRef]

MacCrone, R. K.

K. Kokura, M. Tomozawa, and R. K. MacCrone, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 111, 269 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Menapace, J.

T. Suratwala, R. Steele, M. Feit, L. Wong, P. Miller, J. Menapace, and P. Davis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2023(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Miller, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, M. Feit, J. Menapace, P. Davis, and R. Steele, Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Menapace, J. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, Proc. SPIE 4679, 56 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Milam, D.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P.

T. Suratwala, R. Steele, M. Feit, L. Wong, P. Miller, J. Menapace, and P. Davis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2023(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Miller, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, M. Feit, J. Menapace, P. Davis, and R. Steele, Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, Proc. SPIE 4679, 56 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miller, P. E.

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Wong, T. Suratwala, M. D. Feit, P. E. Miller, and R. Steele, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 797 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, Calif. 94550, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces.”

Molander, W. A.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Monticelli, M. V.

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, Calif. 94550, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces.”

Neauport, J.

Neeb, K. P.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nichols, M.

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, Proc. SPIE 4679, 56 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Norton, M. A.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, Calif. 94550, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces.”

Parham, T.

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, Proc. SPIE 4679, 56 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Penetrante, B.

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, Proc. SPIE 4679, 56 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, J.

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, Proc. SPIE 4679, 56 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pilon, F.

Pistor, T. V.

Rouxel, T.

S. Yoshida, J. Sangleboeuf, and T. Rouxel, J. Mater. Res. 20, 3404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A.

M. D. Feit and A. Rubenchik, Proc. SPIE 5273, 264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Salleo, A.

Sangleboeuf, J.

S. Yoshida, J. Sangleboeuf, and T. Rouxel, J. Mater. Res. 20, 3404 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sell, W. D.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shen, N.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, Calif. 94550, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces.”

Shore, B. W.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Slomba, A.

J. A. Menapace, B. Penetrante, D. Golini, A. Slomba, P. Miller, T. Parham, M. Nichols, and J. Peterson, Proc. SPIE 4679, 56 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Steele, R.

L. L. Wong, T. Suratwala, M. D. Feit, P. E. Miller, and R. Steele, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 797 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Suratwala, R. Steele, M. Feit, L. Wong, P. Miller, J. Menapace, and P. Davis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2023(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Miller, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, M. Feit, J. Menapace, P. Davis, and R. Steele, Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steele, W. A.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, Calif. 94550, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces.”

Stuart, B. C.

B. C. Stuart, M. D. Feit, S. Herman, A. M. Rubenchik, B. W. Shore, and M. D. Perry, Phys. Rev. B 53, 1749 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Suratwala, T.

L. L. Wong, T. Suratwala, M. D. Feit, P. E. Miller, and R. Steele, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355, 797 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Laurence, J. D. Bude, N. Shen, T. Feldman, P. E. Miller, W. A. Steele, and T. Suratwala, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 151114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Suratwala, R. Steele, M. Feit, L. Wong, P. Miller, J. Menapace, and P. Davis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2023(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Miller, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, M. Feit, J. Menapace, P. Davis, and R. Steele, Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suratwala, T. I.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, Calif. 94550, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces.”

Tomozawa, M.

K. Kokura, M. Tomozawa, and R. K. MacCrone, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 111, 269 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, P.

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wong, L.

T. Suratwala, R. Steele, M. Feit, L. Wong, P. Miller, J. Menapace, and P. Davis, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2023(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Miller, T. Suratwala, L. Wong, M. Feit, J. Menapace, P. Davis, and R. Steele, Proc. SPIE 5991, 599101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wong, L. L.

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Opt. Express (1)

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Proc. SPIE (5)

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[CrossRef]

P. E. Miller, T. I. Suratwala, J. D. Bude, T. A. Laurence, N. Shen, W. A. Steele, M. D. Feit, J. A. Menapace, and L. L. Wong, Proc. SPIE 7504, 75040X (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

M. A. Norton, L. W. Hrubesh, Z. Wu, E. E. Donohue, M. D. Feit, M. R. Kozlowski, D. Milam, K. P. Neeb, W. A. Molander, A. M. Rubenchik, W. D. Sell, and P. Wegner, Proc. SPIE 4347, 468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

B. R. Lawn, Fracture of Brittle Solids (Cambridge1993).
[CrossRef]

T. I. Suratwala, P. E. Miller, J. D. Bude, W. A. Steele, N. Shen, M. V. Monticelli, M. D. Feit, T. A. Laurence, M. A. Norton, C. W. Carr, and L. L. Wong, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, Calif. 94550, USA, are preparing a manuscript to be called “HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces.”

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM of (a) 0.1 N Vickers indentation (note fracture on periphery of contact zone), (b) 0.1 N Knoop (fracture-free indentation), (c) 0.5 N Knoop indentation (note fractures in the periphery of the contact zone); (d) SEM and (e) surface profilometry diagonally through a 0.5 N Vickers indentation; (f) FPL image of 0.5 N Vickers indentation (note the correlation between PL and peripheral fractures).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM of 0.5 N Vickers indentation and optical micrographs following (b) 0.5 μm and (c) 1 μm removal by MRF polishing. Note the contrast in (c), indicating densified silica.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) CTP image of a 0.5 N Vickers indent, (b) SEM image after 5 min BOE etch, (c) CTP image after 5 min etch. Note the reduction in FPL and increase in damage threshold ( ϕ TH ).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical micrographs before and after laser damage testing: (a) 0.5 N Knoop indentation, ϕ TH = 9.2 J / cm 2 ; (b) 0.5 N Vickers indentation, ϕ TH = 6.9 J / cm 2 . The black dots indicate the location of fractures as determined by SEM; compare with Figs. 1, 2a, 3b.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Isolation of the Structural Defect Limiting Optical Damage Threshold ( ϕ TH ) a

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