Abstract

This Letter presents a solution for locating hot spots in active integrated circuits (IC) and devices. This method is based on sensing the phase lag between the power periodically dissipated by a device integrated in an IC (hot spot) and its corresponding thermal gradient into the chip substrate by monitoring the heat-induced refractive index gradient with a laser beam. The experimental results show a high accuracy and prove the suitability of this technique to locate and characterize devices behaving as hot spots in current IC technologies.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Pedram and S. Nazarian, Proc. IEEE 94, 1487 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. A. Bota, J. L. Rossello, C. de Benito, A. Keshavarzi, and J. Segura, IEEE Des. Test Comput. 23, 414 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Jaffari and M. Anis, IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst. 27, 1027 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Altet, W. Claeys, S. Dilhaire, and A. Rubio, Proc. IEEE 94, 1519 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Altet, M. A. Salhi, S. Dilhaire, A. Syal, and A. Ivanov, Electron. Lett. 39, 1440 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Tessier, M. Bardoux, C. Boué, C. Filloy, and D. Fournier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Perpiñà, J. Altet, X. Jorda, M. Vellvehi, J. Millan, and N. Mestres, IEEE T. Comput. Aid. D. 29, 1142 (2008).
  8. X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, N. Mestres, M. Vellvehi, P. Godignon, J. Millán, and H. von Kiedrowski, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1011 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, J. Altet, M. Vellvehi, and N. Mestres, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42, 012002 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. S. Carslaw and J. C. Jaegger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Clarendon, 1986).
  11. X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, M. Vellvehi, J. Millán, and N. Mestres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 025106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, J. Altet, M. Vellvehi, and N. Mestres, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42, 012002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

X. Perpiñà, J. Altet, X. Jorda, M. Vellvehi, J. Millan, and N. Mestres, IEEE T. Comput. Aid. D. 29, 1142 (2008).

J. Jaffari and M. Anis, IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst. 27, 1027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

G. Tessier, M. Bardoux, C. Boué, C. Filloy, and D. Fournier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J. Altet, W. Claeys, S. Dilhaire, and A. Rubio, Proc. IEEE 94, 1519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Pedram and S. Nazarian, Proc. IEEE 94, 1487 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Bota, J. L. Rossello, C. de Benito, A. Keshavarzi, and J. Segura, IEEE Des. Test Comput. 23, 414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, M. Vellvehi, J. Millán, and N. Mestres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 025106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, N. Mestres, M. Vellvehi, P. Godignon, J. Millán, and H. von Kiedrowski, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. Altet, M. A. Salhi, S. Dilhaire, A. Syal, and A. Ivanov, Electron. Lett. 39, 1440 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Altet, J.

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, J. Altet, M. Vellvehi, and N. Mestres, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42, 012002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Perpiñà, J. Altet, X. Jorda, M. Vellvehi, J. Millan, and N. Mestres, IEEE T. Comput. Aid. D. 29, 1142 (2008).

J. Altet, W. Claeys, S. Dilhaire, and A. Rubio, Proc. IEEE 94, 1519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Altet, M. A. Salhi, S. Dilhaire, A. Syal, and A. Ivanov, Electron. Lett. 39, 1440 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anis, M.

J. Jaffari and M. Anis, IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst. 27, 1027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bardoux, M.

G. Tessier, M. Bardoux, C. Boué, C. Filloy, and D. Fournier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bota, S. A.

S. A. Bota, J. L. Rossello, C. de Benito, A. Keshavarzi, and J. Segura, IEEE Des. Test Comput. 23, 414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boué, C.

G. Tessier, M. Bardoux, C. Boué, C. Filloy, and D. Fournier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carslaw, H. S.

H. S. Carslaw and J. C. Jaegger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Clarendon, 1986).

Claeys, W.

J. Altet, W. Claeys, S. Dilhaire, and A. Rubio, Proc. IEEE 94, 1519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Benito, C.

S. A. Bota, J. L. Rossello, C. de Benito, A. Keshavarzi, and J. Segura, IEEE Des. Test Comput. 23, 414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dilhaire, S.

J. Altet, W. Claeys, S. Dilhaire, and A. Rubio, Proc. IEEE 94, 1519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Altet, M. A. Salhi, S. Dilhaire, A. Syal, and A. Ivanov, Electron. Lett. 39, 1440 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Filloy, C.

G. Tessier, M. Bardoux, C. Boué, C. Filloy, and D. Fournier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, D.

G. Tessier, M. Bardoux, C. Boué, C. Filloy, and D. Fournier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Godignon, P.

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, N. Mestres, M. Vellvehi, P. Godignon, J. Millán, and H. von Kiedrowski, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, A.

J. Altet, M. A. Salhi, S. Dilhaire, A. Syal, and A. Ivanov, Electron. Lett. 39, 1440 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jaegger, J. C.

H. S. Carslaw and J. C. Jaegger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Clarendon, 1986).

Jaffari, J.

J. Jaffari and M. Anis, IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst. 27, 1027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jorda, X.

X. Perpiñà, J. Altet, X. Jorda, M. Vellvehi, J. Millan, and N. Mestres, IEEE T. Comput. Aid. D. 29, 1142 (2008).

Jordà, X.

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, J. Altet, M. Vellvehi, and N. Mestres, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42, 012002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, M. Vellvehi, J. Millán, and N. Mestres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 025106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, N. Mestres, M. Vellvehi, P. Godignon, J. Millán, and H. von Kiedrowski, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Keshavarzi, A.

S. A. Bota, J. L. Rossello, C. de Benito, A. Keshavarzi, and J. Segura, IEEE Des. Test Comput. 23, 414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mestres, N.

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, J. Altet, M. Vellvehi, and N. Mestres, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42, 012002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Perpiñà, J. Altet, X. Jorda, M. Vellvehi, J. Millan, and N. Mestres, IEEE T. Comput. Aid. D. 29, 1142 (2008).

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, M. Vellvehi, J. Millán, and N. Mestres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 025106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, N. Mestres, M. Vellvehi, P. Godignon, J. Millán, and H. von Kiedrowski, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Millan, J.

X. Perpiñà, J. Altet, X. Jorda, M. Vellvehi, J. Millan, and N. Mestres, IEEE T. Comput. Aid. D. 29, 1142 (2008).

Millán, J.

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, M. Vellvehi, J. Millán, and N. Mestres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 025106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, N. Mestres, M. Vellvehi, P. Godignon, J. Millán, and H. von Kiedrowski, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nazarian, S.

M. Pedram and S. Nazarian, Proc. IEEE 94, 1487 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pedram, M.

M. Pedram and S. Nazarian, Proc. IEEE 94, 1487 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perpiñà, X.

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, J. Altet, M. Vellvehi, and N. Mestres, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42, 012002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Perpiñà, J. Altet, X. Jorda, M. Vellvehi, J. Millan, and N. Mestres, IEEE T. Comput. Aid. D. 29, 1142 (2008).

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, M. Vellvehi, J. Millán, and N. Mestres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 025106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, N. Mestres, M. Vellvehi, P. Godignon, J. Millán, and H. von Kiedrowski, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rossello, J. L.

S. A. Bota, J. L. Rossello, C. de Benito, A. Keshavarzi, and J. Segura, IEEE Des. Test Comput. 23, 414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rubio, A.

J. Altet, W. Claeys, S. Dilhaire, and A. Rubio, Proc. IEEE 94, 1519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salhi, M. A.

J. Altet, M. A. Salhi, S. Dilhaire, A. Syal, and A. Ivanov, Electron. Lett. 39, 1440 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Segura, J.

S. A. Bota, J. L. Rossello, C. de Benito, A. Keshavarzi, and J. Segura, IEEE Des. Test Comput. 23, 414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Syal, A.

J. Altet, M. A. Salhi, S. Dilhaire, A. Syal, and A. Ivanov, Electron. Lett. 39, 1440 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tessier, G.

G. Tessier, M. Bardoux, C. Boué, C. Filloy, and D. Fournier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vellvehi, M.

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, J. Altet, M. Vellvehi, and N. Mestres, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42, 012002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Perpiñà, J. Altet, X. Jorda, M. Vellvehi, J. Millan, and N. Mestres, IEEE T. Comput. Aid. D. 29, 1142 (2008).

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, M. Vellvehi, J. Millán, and N. Mestres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 025106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, N. Mestres, M. Vellvehi, P. Godignon, J. Millán, and H. von Kiedrowski, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

von Kiedrowski, H.

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, N. Mestres, M. Vellvehi, P. Godignon, J. Millán, and H. von Kiedrowski, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Tessier, M. Bardoux, C. Boué, C. Filloy, and D. Fournier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Altet, M. A. Salhi, S. Dilhaire, A. Syal, and A. Ivanov, Electron. Lett. 39, 1440 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Des. Test Comput. (1)

S. A. Bota, J. L. Rossello, C. de Benito, A. Keshavarzi, and J. Segura, IEEE Des. Test Comput. 23, 414 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE T. Comput. Aid. D. (1)

X. Perpiñà, J. Altet, X. Jorda, M. Vellvehi, J. Millan, and N. Mestres, IEEE T. Comput. Aid. D. 29, 1142 (2008).

IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst. (1)

J. Jaffari and M. Anis, IEEE Trans. Comput.-Aided Des. Integr. Circuits Syst. 27, 1027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, J. Altet, M. Vellvehi, and N. Mestres, J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42, 012002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, N. Mestres, M. Vellvehi, P. Godignon, J. Millán, and H. von Kiedrowski, Meas. Sci. Technol. 15, 1011 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (2)

J. Altet, W. Claeys, S. Dilhaire, and A. Rubio, Proc. IEEE 94, 1519 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Pedram and S. Nazarian, Proc. IEEE 94, 1487 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

X. Perpiñà, X. Jordà, M. Vellvehi, J. Millán, and N. Mestres, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 025106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. S. Carslaw and J. C. Jaegger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Clarendon, 1986).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Thermal phenomena induced by an MOSFET dissipating heat within the IC substrate when a lateral scan is performed with a laser beam (points A, B, and C). The direction of the radial unit vector u ^ r (black double point-dashed lines) is also highlighted.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photograph of the inspected IC indicating the activated MOS, the laser beam sense, and the scan direction. (b) Amplitude and (c) ϕ corresponding to k = 0 of the horizontal and vertical beam deflection as a function of the lateral coordinate x ( f heating = 2120 Hz ) .

Equations (5)

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n 2 k + 1 ( r , t ) = A 2 k + 1 ( r ) · sin ( 2 π ( 2 k + 1 ) f heating t + ψ ( r ) ) u ^ r ,
ψ ( r ) = arctan ( ( r / d p ) · ( 1 + r / d p ) 1 ) r / d p ,
d p = D α · ( π · ( 2 k + 1 ) · f heating ) 1 .
y n 2 k + 1 ( r , t ) = n 2 k + 1 ( r , t ) · cos ( φ ) ,
x n 2 k + 1 ( r , t ) = n 2 k + 1 ( r , t ) · sin ( φ ) .

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