Abstract

Optical tweezers were used for quantitative measurement of the absolute dielectrophoresis (DEP) forces acting on polystyrene microparticles. The electrodes and tweezers were configured to create one-dimensional DEP forces acting perpendicular to the tweezers’ beam. The influences of various external factors, such as applied voltage frequency, conductivity of the medium, and particle size on the measurement were estimated. By accounting for these factors, actual measurements were in close agreement with theoretical predictions. Our results show that the optical tweezers may serve as a unique tool for the measurement of DEP forces in various applications.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. H. A. Pohl, Dielectrophoresis: the Behavior of Neutral Matter in Nonuniform Electric Fields (Cambridge U. Press, 1978).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. X.-B. Wang, R. Pethig, and T. B. Jones, J. Phys. D 25, 905 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Y. Chiou, Z. Chang, and M. C. Wu, in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS (IEEE, 2003), pp. 8–9.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Techaumnat and T. Takuma, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 5877 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. A. Pohl and R. Pethig, J. Phys. E 10, 190 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Voldman, R. A. Braff, M. Toner, M. L. Gray, and M. A. Schmidt, Biophys. J. 80, 531 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Imasato and T. Yamakawa, J. Electrophor. 52, 1 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. Papagiakoumou, D. Pietreanu, M. I. Makropoulou, E. Kovacs, and A. A. Serafetinides, J Biomed. Opt. 11, 014035(2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Ramos, H. Morgan, N. G. Green, and A. Castellanos, J. Phys. D 31, 2338 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. T. Wei, J. Junio, and H. D. Ou-Yang, Biomicrofluidics 3, 012003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

H. Imasato and T. Yamakawa, J. Electrophor. 52, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

S. W. Lee, H. Li, and R. Bashir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

E. Papagiakoumou, D. Pietreanu, M. I. Makropoulou, E. Kovacs, and A. A. Serafetinides, J Biomed. Opt. 11, 014035(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Vermeulen, G. J. L. Wuite, G. J. M. Stienen, and C. F. Schmidt, Appl. Opt. 45, 1812 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

G. Pesce, A. Sasso, and S. Fusco, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 115105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

B. Techaumnat and T. Takuma, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 5877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Voldman, R. A. Braff, M. Toner, M. L. Gray, and M. A. Schmidt, Biophys. J. 80, 531 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

N. G. Green and H. Morgan, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. Ramos, H. Morgan, N. G. Green, and A. Castellanos, J. Phys. D 31, 2338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. B. Jones and M. Washizu, J. Electrost. 37, 121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

X.-B. Wang, R. Pethig, and T. B. Jones, J. Phys. D 25, 905 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. Masuda, M. Washizu, and I. Kawabata, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 24, 217 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

H. A. Pohl and R. Pethig, J. Phys. E 10, 190 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

H. A. Pohl, J. Appl. Phys. 22, 869 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Bashir, R.

S. W. Lee, H. Li, and R. Bashir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Braff, R. A.

J. Voldman, R. A. Braff, M. Toner, M. L. Gray, and M. A. Schmidt, Biophys. J. 80, 531 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castellanos, A.

A. Ramos, H. Morgan, N. G. Green, and A. Castellanos, J. Phys. D 31, 2338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

P. Y. Chiou, Z. Chang, and M. C. Wu, in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS (IEEE, 2003), pp. 8–9.

Chiou, P. Y.

P. Y. Chiou, Z. Chang, and M. C. Wu, in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS (IEEE, 2003), pp. 8–9.

Fusco, S.

G. Pesce, A. Sasso, and S. Fusco, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 115105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gray, M. L.

J. Voldman, R. A. Braff, M. Toner, M. L. Gray, and M. A. Schmidt, Biophys. J. 80, 531 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, N. G.

N. G. Green and H. Morgan, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ramos, H. Morgan, N. G. Green, and A. Castellanos, J. Phys. D 31, 2338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Imasato, H.

H. Imasato and T. Yamakawa, J. Electrophor. 52, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jones, T. B.

T. B. Jones and M. Washizu, J. Electrost. 37, 121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, R. Pethig, and T. B. Jones, J. Phys. D 25, 905 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Junio, J.

M. T. Wei, J. Junio, and H. D. Ou-Yang, Biomicrofluidics 3, 012003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawabata, I.

S. Masuda, M. Washizu, and I. Kawabata, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 24, 217 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kovacs, E.

E. Papagiakoumou, D. Pietreanu, M. I. Makropoulou, E. Kovacs, and A. A. Serafetinides, J Biomed. Opt. 11, 014035(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. W.

S. W. Lee, H. Li, and R. Bashir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

S. W. Lee, H. Li, and R. Bashir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Makropoulou, M. I.

E. Papagiakoumou, D. Pietreanu, M. I. Makropoulou, E. Kovacs, and A. A. Serafetinides, J Biomed. Opt. 11, 014035(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Masuda, S.

S. Masuda, M. Washizu, and I. Kawabata, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 24, 217 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, H.

N. G. Green and H. Morgan, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ramos, H. Morgan, N. G. Green, and A. Castellanos, J. Phys. D 31, 2338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ou-Yang, H. D.

M. T. Wei, J. Junio, and H. D. Ou-Yang, Biomicrofluidics 3, 012003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Papagiakoumou, E.

E. Papagiakoumou, D. Pietreanu, M. I. Makropoulou, E. Kovacs, and A. A. Serafetinides, J Biomed. Opt. 11, 014035(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pesce, G.

G. Pesce, A. Sasso, and S. Fusco, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 115105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pethig, R.

X.-B. Wang, R. Pethig, and T. B. Jones, J. Phys. D 25, 905 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Pohl and R. Pethig, J. Phys. E 10, 190 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Pietreanu, D.

E. Papagiakoumou, D. Pietreanu, M. I. Makropoulou, E. Kovacs, and A. A. Serafetinides, J Biomed. Opt. 11, 014035(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, H. A.

H. A. Pohl and R. Pethig, J. Phys. E 10, 190 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Pohl, J. Appl. Phys. 22, 869 (1951).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Pohl, Dielectrophoresis: the Behavior of Neutral Matter in Nonuniform Electric Fields (Cambridge U. Press, 1978).

Ramos, A.

A. Ramos, H. Morgan, N. G. Green, and A. Castellanos, J. Phys. D 31, 2338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sasso, A.

G. Pesce, A. Sasso, and S. Fusco, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 115105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, C. F.

Schmidt, M. A.

J. Voldman, R. A. Braff, M. Toner, M. L. Gray, and M. A. Schmidt, Biophys. J. 80, 531 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Serafetinides, A. A.

E. Papagiakoumou, D. Pietreanu, M. I. Makropoulou, E. Kovacs, and A. A. Serafetinides, J Biomed. Opt. 11, 014035(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stienen, G. J. M.

Takuma, T.

B. Techaumnat and T. Takuma, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 5877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Techaumnat, B.

B. Techaumnat and T. Takuma, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 5877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Toner, M.

J. Voldman, R. A. Braff, M. Toner, M. L. Gray, and M. A. Schmidt, Biophys. J. 80, 531 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vermeulen, K. C.

Voldman, J.

J. Voldman, R. A. Braff, M. Toner, M. L. Gray, and M. A. Schmidt, Biophys. J. 80, 531 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.-B.

X.-B. Wang, R. Pethig, and T. B. Jones, J. Phys. D 25, 905 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Washizu, M.

T. B. Jones and M. Washizu, J. Electrost. 37, 121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Masuda, M. Washizu, and I. Kawabata, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 24, 217 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wei, M. T.

M. T. Wei, J. Junio, and H. D. Ou-Yang, Biomicrofluidics 3, 012003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

P. Y. Chiou, Z. Chang, and M. C. Wu, in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS (IEEE, 2003), pp. 8–9.

Wuite, G. J. L.

Yamakawa, T.

H. Imasato and T. Yamakawa, J. Electrophor. 52, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. W. Lee, H. Li, and R. Bashir, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 223902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biomicrofluidics (1)

M. T. Wei, J. Junio, and H. D. Ou-Yang, Biomicrofluidics 3, 012003 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

J. Voldman, R. A. Braff, M. Toner, M. L. Gray, and M. A. Schmidt, Biophys. J. 80, 531 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. (1)

S. Masuda, M. Washizu, and I. Kawabata, IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. 24, 217 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J Biomed. Opt. (1)

E. Papagiakoumou, D. Pietreanu, M. I. Makropoulou, E. Kovacs, and A. A. Serafetinides, J Biomed. Opt. 11, 014035(2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. A. Pohl, J. Appl. Phys. 22, 869 (1951).
[CrossRef]

B. Techaumnat and T. Takuma, J. Appl. Phys. 96, 5877 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrophor. (1)

H. Imasato and T. Yamakawa, J. Electrophor. 52, 1 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrost. (1)

T. B. Jones and M. Washizu, J. Electrost. 37, 121 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

N. G. Green and H. Morgan, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 41 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (2)

A. Ramos, H. Morgan, N. G. Green, and A. Castellanos, J. Phys. D 31, 2338 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X.-B. Wang, R. Pethig, and T. B. Jones, J. Phys. D 25, 905 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (1)

H. A. Pohl and R. Pethig, J. Phys. E 10, 190 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Pesce, A. Sasso, and S. Fusco, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 115105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. Y. Chiou, Z. Chang, and M. C. Wu, in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS International Conference on Optical MEMS (IEEE, 2003), pp. 8–9.

H. A. Pohl, Dielectrophoresis: the Behavior of Neutral Matter in Nonuniform Electric Fields (Cambridge U. Press, 1978).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of optical tweezers setup. (b) Picture and schematic of DEP chamber. (c) CCD image of a 5 μm diameter trapped polystyrene particle near the electrodes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

DEP force as a function of squared ac voltage: solid line, best linear fit; dashed line, prediction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

DEP force as a function of frequency in DI water, 1 mM Na Cl , and 10 mM Na Cl solution: solid line, measured data; dotted line, prediction.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

DEP force as a function of frequency for 7 and 5 μm diameter polystyrene particles suspended in DI water: solid line, measured data; dotted line, prediction.

Equations (1)

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U n = [ 2 π ε m K n r ( 2 n + 1 ) ( 2 n + 1 ) !! ] × i + j + k = n ( 1 i ! j ! k ! ) [ n Φ / x i y j z k ] 2 ,

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