Abstract

We show that the interferometric interaction between the tip and the sample is inherently measured by a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) operating in reflection mode. This is demonstrated by measuring the phase of the sample reflectivity on a standard multilayer system with variable thickness. The demonstrated intrinsic sensitivity to the phase has implications in the interpretation of images collected by using reflection mode NSOM.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2006

L. Novotny and S. J. Stranick, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57, 303 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. C. Dunn, Chem. Rev. 99, 2891 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

1990

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carminati, R.

Courjon, D.

Deckert, V.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

Dunn, R. C.

R. C. Dunn, Chem. Rev. 99, 2891 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

Greffet, J.-J.

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hillenbrand, R.

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Keilmann, F.

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leblanc, S.

Martin, O. J. F.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, and A. Dereux, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1801 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. Novotny and S. J. Stranick, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57, 303 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Novotny, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 91 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985), Vol. 1.

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sarayeddine, K.

Sick, B.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spajer, M.

Stranick, S. J.

L. Novotny and S. J. Stranick, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57, 303 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vigoureux, J.-M.

Wild, U. P.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zenobi, R.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.

L. Novotny and S. J. Stranick, Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 57, 303 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Rev.

R. C. Dunn, Chem. Rev. 99, 2891 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

B. Hecht, B. Sick, U. P. Wild, V. Deckert, R. Zenobi, O. J. F. Martin, and D. W. Pohl, J. Chem. Phys. 112, 7761 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985), Vol. 1.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: light is coupled into an NSOM tip, which is oriented at an angle of 15 ° 20 ° with respect to the sample. Light reflected as a result of the interaction between tip and sample is collected with a microscope objective and detected by a PMT as a function of tip-sample separation. The samples examined here consist of thin layers of Si O 2 deposited onto Si. The reflection from the tip is given by r tip , r eff is the effective reflection coefficient for the multilayer stack, r 12 is the reflection coefficient off the Si O 2 layer into air, r 23 is the reflection coefficient off the Si layer into the Si O 2 layer, z is the tip-sample separation, and d is the thickness of the Si O 2 layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interference signals measured as a function of tip-sample separation in the reflection mode NSOM. The top two curves correspond to 532 nm and 635 nm laser excitations through an approximately 1 μm aperture tip, and the bottom curve corresponds to a 532 nm laser excitation through a 100 nm aperture tip.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Thickness of thin layers of Si O 2 deposited on Si measured with the n&k apparatus and inferred from the NSOM interferometric measurements, as indicated. The lines serve as a guide to the eye. The error bars of both measurements are included.

Equations (2)

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I out 1 + A 2 | r eff | 2 + 2 A | r eff | cos ( 4 π z λ + ϕ eff ) ,
r ˜ eff = r ˜ 12 + r ˜ 23 exp ( 2 i k 2 z d ) 1 + r ˜ 12 r ˜ 23 exp ( 2 i k 2 z d ) .

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