Abstract

We realize high luminous efficiency (LE) in white polymer light-emitting devices by employing a wide bandgap polymer P36HCTPSi as host and introducing a blue–yellow two-color system for obtaining white emission. Phosphorescent dopants bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridinato-N,C2]-(picolinato)iridium(III) (FIrpic) and iridium(III) bis(2-(9,9’-spirobi[fluorene]-7-yl)pyridine-N,C2) acetylacetonate [Ir(SBFP)2 (acac)] were used as blue and yellow emitters, respectively. Electroluminescent spectra and LE were both affected by Ir(SBFP)2(acac) concentration; the device with low concentration (0.4 wt.%) showed white emission with a LE of 24.1cd/A at 1000cd/m2, while the one with high concentration (4 wt.%) emitted yellowish-white light with a higher LE of 47.3cd/A at 1000cd/m2.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (4)

C.-H. Chang, C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Chang, J.-Y. Hung, and Y. Chi, Org. Electron. 11, 266 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, C.-L. Ho, Y. Zhao, D. Ma, W.-Y. Wong, and L. Wang, Org. Electron. 11, 238 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Yook, C. W. Joo, S. O. Jeon, and J. Y. Lee, Org. Electron. 11, 184 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, Y. Zhao, T. Fei, Y. G. Ma, and S. Y. Liu, Org. Electron. 11, 498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

T. Fei, C. Wang, S. Xue, X. Gu, F. Li, and Y. G. Ma, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 105019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Fei, G. Cheng, D. H. Hu, P. Lu, and Y. G. Ma, J. Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem. 47, 4784 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Wu, L. Ying, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, Chem. Soc. Rev. 38, 3391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Huang, P.-I. Shih, C.-F. Shu, Y. Chi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Adv. Mater. 21, 361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Xu, R. Q. Yang, J. B. Peng, A. A. Mikhailovsky, Y. Cao, T.-Q. Nguyen, and G. C. Bazan, Adv. Mater. 21, 584(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wu, G. Zhou, J. Zou, C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, W. Yang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 21, 4181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

C.-L. Ho, M.-F. Lin, W.-Y. Wong, W.-K. Wong, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, F. Huang, A. K. Y. Jen, and Y. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 063303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, Q. Wang, D. Ma, L. Wang, and Z. Lin, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 928 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, G.-J. Zhou, B. Yao, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

X.-M. Yu, H.-S. Kwok, W.-Y. Wong, and G.-J. Zhou, Chem. Mater. 18, 5097 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, Y. F. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Y. Lin, C. Y. Ruan, S. Y. Liu, T. Fei, Y. G. Ma, and Y. X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 17, 2053 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

X. Gong, W. Ma, J. C. Ostrowski, G. C. Bazan, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 16, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. 16, 624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, F. Li, Y. Duan, J. Feng, S. Y. Liu, S. Qiu, D. Lin, Y. G. Ma, and S. T. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4224(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

B. W. D’Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. 14, 147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 395, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 395, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bazan, G. C.

Y. H. Xu, R. Q. Yang, J. B. Peng, A. A. Mikhailovsky, Y. Cao, T.-Q. Nguyen, and G. C. Bazan, Adv. Mater. 21, 584(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 17, 2053 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Gong, W. Ma, J. C. Ostrowski, G. C. Bazan, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 16, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brédas, J. L.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y.

H. Wu, L. Ying, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, Chem. Soc. Rev. 38, 3391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Xu, R. Q. Yang, J. B. Peng, A. A. Mikhailovsky, Y. Cao, T.-Q. Nguyen, and G. C. Bazan, Adv. Mater. 21, 584(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wu, G. Zhou, J. Zou, C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, W. Yang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 21, 4181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H.

C.-H. Chang, C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Chang, J.-Y. Hung, and Y. Chi, Org. Electron. 11, 266 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-Y.

C.-H. Chang, C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Chang, J.-Y. Hung, and Y. Chi, Org. Electron. 11, 266 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

C.-L. Ho, M.-F. Lin, W.-Y. Wong, W.-K. Wong, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

C.-H. Chang, C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Chang, J.-Y. Hung, and Y. Chi, Org. Electron. 11, 266 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, G.

G. Cheng, Y. Zhao, T. Fei, Y. G. Ma, and S. Y. Liu, Org. Electron. 11, 498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Fei, G. Cheng, D. H. Hu, P. Lu, and Y. G. Ma, J. Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem. 47, 4784 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, Y. F. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Y. Lin, C. Y. Ruan, S. Y. Liu, T. Fei, Y. G. Ma, and Y. X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, F. Li, Y. Duan, J. Feng, S. Y. Liu, S. Qiu, D. Lin, Y. G. Ma, and S. T. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4224(2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. X.

G. Cheng, Y. F. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Y. Lin, C. Y. Ruan, S. Y. Liu, T. Fei, Y. G. Ma, and Y. X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chi, Y.

C.-H. Chang, C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Chang, J.-Y. Hung, and Y. Chi, Org. Electron. 11, 266 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Huang, P.-I. Shih, C.-F. Shu, Y. Chi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Adv. Mater. 21, 361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, F. Huang, A. K. Y. Jen, and Y. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 063303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. 16, 624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. 14, 147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duan, Y.

G. Cheng, F. Li, Y. Duan, J. Feng, S. Y. Liu, S. Qiu, D. Lin, Y. G. Ma, and S. T. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4224(2003).
[CrossRef]

Fei, T.

G. Cheng, Y. Zhao, T. Fei, Y. G. Ma, and S. Y. Liu, Org. Electron. 11, 498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Fei, G. Cheng, D. H. Hu, P. Lu, and Y. G. Ma, J. Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem. 47, 4784 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Fei, C. Wang, S. Xue, X. Gu, F. Li, and Y. G. Ma, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 105019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, Y. F. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Y. Lin, C. Y. Ruan, S. Y. Liu, T. Fei, Y. G. Ma, and Y. X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

G. Cheng, F. Li, Y. Duan, J. Feng, S. Y. Liu, S. Qiu, D. Lin, Y. G. Ma, and S. T. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4224(2003).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. 16, 624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. 14, 147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 395, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gong, X.

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 17, 2053 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Gong, W. Ma, J. C. Ostrowski, G. C. Bazan, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 16, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, X.

T. Fei, C. Wang, S. Xue, X. Gu, F. Li, and Y. G. Ma, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 105019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gymer, R. W.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 17, 2053 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Gong, W. Ma, J. C. Ostrowski, G. C. Bazan, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 16, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ho, C.-L.

Q. Wang, C.-L. Ho, Y. Zhao, D. Ma, W.-Y. Wong, and L. Wang, Org. Electron. 11, 238 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Wu, G. Zhou, J. Zou, C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, W. Yang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 21, 4181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Ho, M.-F. Lin, W.-Y. Wong, W.-K. Wong, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, Q. Wang, D. Ma, L. Wang, and Z. Lin, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 928 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, G.-J. Zhou, B. Yao, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. B.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, R. J.

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. 16, 624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, D. H.

T. Fei, G. Cheng, D. H. Hu, P. Lu, and Y. G. Ma, J. Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem. 47, 4784 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

F. Huang, P.-I. Shih, C.-F. Shu, Y. Chi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Adv. Mater. 21, 361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, F. Huang, A. K. Y. Jen, and Y. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 063303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hung, J.-Y.

C.-H. Chang, C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Chang, J.-Y. Hung, and Y. Chi, Org. Electron. 11, 266 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Iijima, T.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y.

Y. Zhang, F. Huang, A. K. Y. Jen, and Y. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 063303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

F. Huang, P.-I. Shih, C.-F. Shu, Y. Chi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Adv. Mater. 21, 361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S. O.

K. S. Yook, C. W. Joo, S. O. Jeon, and J. Y. Lee, Org. Electron. 11, 184 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Joo, C. W.

K. S. Yook, C. W. Joo, S. O. Jeon, and J. Y. Lee, Org. Electron. 11, 184 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kita, H.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H.-S.

X.-M. Yu, H.-S. Kwok, W.-Y. Wong, and G.-J. Zhou, Chem. Mater. 18, 5097 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

K. S. Yook, C. W. Joo, S. O. Jeon, and J. Y. Lee, Org. Electron. 11, 184 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. T.

G. Cheng, F. Li, Y. Duan, J. Feng, S. Y. Liu, S. Qiu, D. Lin, Y. G. Ma, and S. T. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4224(2003).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, F.

T. Fei, C. Wang, S. Xue, X. Gu, F. Li, and Y. G. Ma, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 105019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, F. Li, Y. Duan, J. Feng, S. Y. Liu, S. Qiu, D. Lin, Y. G. Ma, and S. T. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4224(2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D.

G. Cheng, F. Li, Y. Duan, J. Feng, S. Y. Liu, S. Qiu, D. Lin, Y. G. Ma, and S. T. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4224(2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M.-F.

C.-L. Ho, M.-F. Lin, W.-Y. Wong, W.-K. Wong, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. Y.

G. Cheng, Y. F. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Y. Lin, C. Y. Ruan, S. Y. Liu, T. Fei, Y. G. Ma, and Y. X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, Q. Wang, D. Ma, L. Wang, and Z. Lin, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 928 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, F.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S. Y.

G. Cheng, Y. Zhao, T. Fei, Y. G. Ma, and S. Y. Liu, Org. Electron. 11, 498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, Y. F. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Y. Lin, C. Y. Ruan, S. Y. Liu, T. Fei, Y. G. Ma, and Y. X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, F. Li, Y. Duan, J. Feng, S. Y. Liu, S. Qiu, D. Lin, Y. G. Ma, and S. T. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4224(2003).
[CrossRef]

Lögdlund, M.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

T. Fei, G. Cheng, D. H. Hu, P. Lu, and Y. G. Ma, J. Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem. 47, 4784 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lüssem, B.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, D.

Q. Wang, C.-L. Ho, Y. Zhao, D. Ma, W.-Y. Wong, and L. Wang, Org. Electron. 11, 238 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, Q. Wang, D. Ma, L. Wang, and Z. Lin, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 928 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, W.

X. Gong, W. Ma, J. C. Ostrowski, G. C. Bazan, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 16, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y. G.

G. Cheng, Y. Zhao, T. Fei, Y. G. Ma, and S. Y. Liu, Org. Electron. 11, 498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Fei, G. Cheng, D. H. Hu, P. Lu, and Y. G. Ma, J. Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem. 47, 4784 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Fei, C. Wang, S. Xue, X. Gu, F. Li, and Y. G. Ma, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 105019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, Y. F. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Y. Lin, C. Y. Ruan, S. Y. Liu, T. Fei, Y. G. Ma, and Y. X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, F. Li, Y. Duan, J. Feng, S. Y. Liu, S. Qiu, D. Lin, Y. G. Ma, and S. T. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4224(2003).
[CrossRef]

Marks, R. N.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailovsky, A. A.

Y. H. Xu, R. Q. Yang, J. B. Peng, A. A. Mikhailovsky, Y. Cao, T.-Q. Nguyen, and G. C. Bazan, Adv. Mater. 21, 584(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moses, D.

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 17, 2053 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Gong, W. Ma, J. C. Ostrowski, G. C. Bazan, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 16, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, T.-Q.

Y. H. Xu, R. Q. Yang, J. B. Peng, A. A. Mikhailovsky, Y. Cao, T.-Q. Nguyen, and G. C. Bazan, Adv. Mater. 21, 584(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Brien, D. F.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 395, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowski, J. C.

X. Gong, W. Ma, J. C. Ostrowski, G. C. Bazan, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 16, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J.

H. Wu, G. Zhou, J. Zou, C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, W. Yang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 21, 4181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J. B.

Y. H. Xu, R. Q. Yang, J. B. Peng, A. A. Mikhailovsky, Y. Cao, T.-Q. Nguyen, and G. C. Bazan, Adv. Mater. 21, 584(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, S.

G. Cheng, F. Li, Y. Duan, J. Feng, S. Y. Liu, S. Qiu, D. Lin, Y. G. Ma, and S. T. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4224(2003).
[CrossRef]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruan, C. Y.

G. Cheng, Y. F. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Y. Lin, C. Y. Ruan, S. Y. Liu, T. Fei, Y. G. Ma, and Y. X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salaneck, W. R.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Santos, D. A. D.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sato, F.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seidler, N.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shih, P.-I.

F. Huang, P.-I. Shih, C.-F. Shu, Y. Chi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Adv. Mater. 21, 361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shoustikov, A.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 395, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shu, C.-F.

F. Huang, P.-I. Shih, C.-F. Shu, Y. Chi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Adv. Mater. 21, 361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sibley, S.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 395, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Suzuri, Y.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taliani, C.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

B. W. D’Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. 14, 147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 395, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tokito, S.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsuzuki, T.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

T. Fei, C. Wang, S. Xue, X. Gu, F. Li, and Y. G. Ma, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 105019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Q. Wang, C.-L. Ho, Y. Zhao, D. Ma, W.-Y. Wong, and L. Wang, Org. Electron. 11, 238 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, Q. Wang, D. Ma, L. Wang, and Z. Lin, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 928 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, G.-J. Zhou, B. Yao, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, C.-L. Ho, Y. Zhao, D. Ma, W.-Y. Wong, and L. Wang, Org. Electron. 11, 238 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, Q. Wang, D. Ma, L. Wang, and Z. Lin, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 928 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 17, 2053 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W.-K.

C.-L. Ho, M.-F. Lin, W.-Y. Wong, W.-K. Wong, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W.-Y.

Q. Wang, C.-L. Ho, Y. Zhao, D. Ma, W.-Y. Wong, and L. Wang, Org. Electron. 11, 238 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Wu, G. Zhou, J. Zou, C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, W. Yang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 21, 4181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Ho, M.-F. Lin, W.-Y. Wong, W.-K. Wong, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, Q. Wang, D. Ma, L. Wang, and Z. Lin, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 928 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, G.-J. Zhou, B. Yao, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X.-M. Yu, H.-S. Kwok, W.-Y. Wong, and G.-J. Zhou, Chem. Mater. 18, 5097 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-C.

C.-H. Chang, C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Chang, J.-Y. Hung, and Y. Chi, Org. Electron. 11, 266 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

H. Wu, L. Ying, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, Chem. Soc. Rev. 38, 3391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Wu, G. Zhou, J. Zou, C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, W. Yang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 21, 4181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Z.

C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, G.-J. Zhou, B. Yao, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y. H.

Y. H. Xu, R. Q. Yang, J. B. Peng, A. A. Mikhailovsky, Y. Cao, T.-Q. Nguyen, and G. C. Bazan, Adv. Mater. 21, 584(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xue, S.

T. Fei, C. Wang, S. Xue, X. Gu, F. Li, and Y. G. Ma, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 105019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, R. Q.

Y. H. Xu, R. Q. Yang, J. B. Peng, A. A. Mikhailovsky, Y. Cao, T.-Q. Nguyen, and G. C. Bazan, Adv. Mater. 21, 584(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, W.

H. Wu, G. Zhou, J. Zou, C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, W. Yang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 21, 4181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Wu, L. Ying, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, Chem. Soc. Rev. 38, 3391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B.

C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, G.-J. Zhou, B. Yao, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ying, L.

H. Wu, L. Ying, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, Chem. Soc. Rev. 38, 3391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yook, K. S.

K. S. Yook, C. W. Joo, S. O. Jeon, and J. Y. Lee, Org. Electron. 11, 184 (2010).
[CrossRef]

You, Y.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 395, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.-M.

X.-M. Yu, H.-S. Kwok, W.-Y. Wong, and G.-J. Zhou, Chem. Mater. 18, 5097 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, F. Huang, A. K. Y. Jen, and Y. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 063303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. F.

G. Cheng, Y. F. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Y. Lin, C. Y. Ruan, S. Y. Liu, T. Fei, Y. G. Ma, and Y. X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Q. Wang, C.-L. Ho, Y. Zhao, D. Ma, W.-Y. Wong, and L. Wang, Org. Electron. 11, 238 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, Y. Zhao, T. Fei, Y. G. Ma, and S. Y. Liu, Org. Electron. 11, 498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, Y. F. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Y. Lin, C. Y. Ruan, S. Y. Liu, T. Fei, Y. G. Ma, and Y. X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G.

H. Wu, G. Zhou, J. Zou, C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, W. Yang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 21, 4181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G.-J.

C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, G.-J. Zhou, B. Yao, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X.-M. Yu, H.-S. Kwok, W.-Y. Wong, and G.-J. Zhou, Chem. Mater. 18, 5097 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zou, J.

H. Wu, G. Zhou, J. Zou, C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, W. Yang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 21, 4181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, G.-J. Zhou, B. Yao, Z. Xie, and L. Wang, Adv. Funct. Mater. 17, 2925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, Q. Wang, D. Ma, L. Wang, and Z. Lin, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18, 928 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (7)

F. Huang, P.-I. Shih, C.-F. Shu, Y. Chi, and A. K.-Y. Jen, Adv. Mater. 21, 361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Xu, R. Q. Yang, J. B. Peng, A. A. Mikhailovsky, Y. Cao, T.-Q. Nguyen, and G. C. Bazan, Adv. Mater. 21, 584(2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wu, G. Zhou, J. Zou, C.-L. Ho, W.-Y. Wong, W. Yang, J. Peng, and Y. Cao, Adv. Mater. 21, 4181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. 14, 147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Gong, W. Ma, J. C. Ostrowski, G. C. Bazan, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 16, 615 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Gong, S. Wang, D. Moses, G. C. Bazan, and A. J. Heeger, Adv. Mater. 17, 2053 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, R. J. Holmes, and S. R. Forrest, Adv. Mater. 16, 624 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 569 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, F. Huang, A. K. Y. Jen, and Y. Chi, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 063303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, F. Li, Y. Duan, J. Feng, S. Y. Liu, S. Qiu, D. Lin, Y. G. Ma, and S. T. Lee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4224(2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, Y. F. Zhang, Y. Zhao, Y. Y. Lin, C. Y. Ruan, S. Y. Liu, T. Fei, Y. G. Ma, and Y. X. Cheng, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 043504 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-L. Ho, M.-F. Lin, W.-Y. Wong, W.-K. Wong, and C. H. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 083301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

X.-M. Yu, H.-S. Kwok, W.-Y. Wong, and G.-J. Zhou, Chem. Mater. 18, 5097 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

H. Wu, L. Ying, W. Yang, and Y. Cao, Chem. Soc. Rev. 38, 3391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem. (1)

T. Fei, G. Cheng, D. H. Hu, P. Lu, and Y. G. Ma, J. Polym. Sci. A: Polym. Chem. 47, 4784 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

S. Reineke, F. Lindner, G. Schwartz, N. Seidler, K. Walzer, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, Nature 459, 234 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradley, D. A. D. Santos, J. L. Brédas, M. Lögdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, Nature 397, 121 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, Nature 395, 151 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron. (4)

K. S. Yook, C. W. Joo, S. O. Jeon, and J. Y. Lee, Org. Electron. 11, 184 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-H. Chang, C.-C. Chen, C.-C. Wu, S.-Y. Chang, J.-Y. Hung, and Y. Chi, Org. Electron. 11, 266 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, C.-L. Ho, Y. Zhao, D. Ma, W.-Y. Wong, and L. Wang, Org. Electron. 11, 238 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Cheng, Y. Zhao, T. Fei, Y. G. Ma, and S. Y. Liu, Org. Electron. 11, 498 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. Fei, C. Wang, S. Xue, X. Gu, F. Li, and Y. G. Ma, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 24, 105019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized EL spectra of WPLEDs with configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/ P36HCTPSi: FIrpic: Ir ( SBFP ) 2 (acac)/TPBI/LiF/Al. In the blend of P36HCTPSi: FIrpic: Ir ( SBFP ) 2 (acac), the concentration of FIrpic was fixed at 8 wt . % , while that of Ir ( SBFP ) 2 (acac) varied from 0.16 to 4 wt . % . Inset, chemical structure of P36HCTPSi.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized PL spectra for the films of P36HCTPSi: FIrpic ( 8 wt . % ): Ir ( SBFP ) 2 (acac) ( 0.16 4 wt . % ) blends.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LE-J characteristics of WPLEDs with various Ir ( SBFP ) 2 (acac) concentrations. Inset, chemical structure of Ir ( SBFP ) 2 (acac).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

L–J–V curves of WPLEDs with various Ir ( SBFP ) 2 (acac) concentrations.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Performances of WPLEDs with Various Ir ( SBFP ) 2 (acac) Concentrations

Metrics