Abstract

We propose an inexpensive novel rapid prototyping approach to a maskless and fully adaptive photolithographic process. Phase-only computer-generated holograms of lithographic masks displayed on a liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulator were used in a holographic optical lithography system. Using holographic projection allows diffraction-limited performance within the given parameters of the optical system, adaptive software refocusing, and a continuous, pixel-free pattern. With the demonstrator, we have successfully proven the concept for micrometer-size lithographic features.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K.-R. Kim, J. Yi, S.-H. Cho, N.-H. Kang, M.-W. Cho, B.-S. Shin, and B. Choi, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Kessels and K. Heggarty, Microelectron. Eng. 86, 2385 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Jenness, K. Wulff, M. Johannes, M. J. Padgett, D. G. Cole, and R. L. Clark, Opt. Express 16, 15942 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. Cable, E. Buckley, P. Marsh, N. Lawrence, T. Wilkinson, and W. Crossland, in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2004), Vol. 35, pp. 1431–1433.
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, J. Tisserand, S. Malfoy, and Y. Darbelly, Opt. Eng. 34, 2724 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Maiden, R. McWilliam, A. Purvis, S. Johnson, G. L. Williams, N. L. Seed, and P. A. Ivey, Opt. Lett. 30, 1300 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 60 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Marquez, E. Also, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. Yzuel, Proc. SPIE 7442, 74420G (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, E. Fernández, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, Opt. Express 16, 16711 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Seldowitz, J. Allebach, and D. Sweeney, Appl. Opt. 26, 2788 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, Science 220, 671 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237 (1972).
  13. J. R. Fienup, Appl. Opt. 21, 2758 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. H. Akahori, Appl. Opt. 25, 802 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company, 2005).
  16. J. P. Allebach, N. C. Gallagher, and B. Liu, Appl. Opt. 15, 2183 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. E. Buckley, A. Cable, N. Lawrence, and T. Wilkinson, Appl. Opt. 45, 7334 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, J. Hintersteiner, K. Troost, J. Freyer, and K. van der Mast, Proc. SPIE 5377, 777 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (3)

K.-R. Kim, J. Yi, S.-H. Cho, N.-H. Kang, M.-W. Cho, B.-S. Shin, and B. Choi, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kessels and K. Heggarty, Microelectron. Eng. 86, 2385 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Marquez, E. Also, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. Yzuel, Proc. SPIE 7442, 74420G (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Jenness, K. Wulff, M. Johannes, M. J. Padgett, D. G. Cole, and R. L. Clark, Opt. Express 16, 15942 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, E. Fernández, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, Opt. Express 16, 16711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

2004 (2)

T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, J. Hintersteiner, K. Troost, J. Freyer, and K. van der Mast, Proc. SPIE 5377, 777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Cable, E. Buckley, P. Marsh, N. Lawrence, T. Wilkinson, and W. Crossland, in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2004), Vol. 35, pp. 1431–1433.
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, J. Tisserand, S. Malfoy, and Y. Darbelly, Opt. Eng. 34, 2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1983 (1)

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, Science 220, 671 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1976 (1)

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237 (1972).

Akahori, H.

Allebach, J.

Allebach, J. P.

Also, E.

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Marquez, E. Also, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. Yzuel, Proc. SPIE 7442, 74420G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bleeker, A.

T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, J. Hintersteiner, K. Troost, J. Freyer, and K. van der Mast, Proc. SPIE 5377, 777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, E.

E. Buckley, A. Cable, N. Lawrence, and T. Wilkinson, Appl. Opt. 45, 7334 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cable, E. Buckley, P. Marsh, N. Lawrence, T. Wilkinson, and W. Crossland, in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2004), Vol. 35, pp. 1431–1433.
[CrossRef]

Cable, A.

E. Buckley, A. Cable, N. Lawrence, and T. Wilkinson, Appl. Opt. 45, 7334 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cable, E. Buckley, P. Marsh, N. Lawrence, T. Wilkinson, and W. Crossland, in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2004), Vol. 35, pp. 1431–1433.
[CrossRef]

Campos, J.

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Marquez, E. Also, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. Yzuel, Proc. SPIE 7442, 74420G (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, E. Fernández, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, Opt. Express 16, 16711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, M.-W.

K.-R. Kim, J. Yi, S.-H. Cho, N.-H. Kang, M.-W. Cho, B.-S. Shin, and B. Choi, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-H.

K.-R. Kim, J. Yi, S.-H. Cho, N.-H. Kang, M.-W. Cho, B.-S. Shin, and B. Choi, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B.

K.-R. Kim, J. Yi, S.-H. Cho, N.-H. Kang, M.-W. Cho, B.-S. Shin, and B. Choi, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clark, R. L.

Clube, F.

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, J. Tisserand, S. Malfoy, and Y. Darbelly, Opt. Eng. 34, 2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cole, D. G.

Collings, N.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crossland, W.

A. Cable, E. Buckley, P. Marsh, N. Lawrence, T. Wilkinson, and W. Crossland, in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2004), Vol. 35, pp. 1431–1433.
[CrossRef]

Crossland, W. A.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Darbelly, Y.

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, J. Tisserand, S. Malfoy, and Y. Darbelly, Opt. Eng. 34, 2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Davey, A. B.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Evans, M.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, E.

Fienup, J. R.

Freyer, J.

T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, J. Hintersteiner, K. Troost, J. Freyer, and K. van der Mast, Proc. SPIE 5377, 777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, N. C.

Gelatt, C. D.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, Science 220, 671 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237 (1972).

Goodman, J.

J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company, 2005).

Gray, S.

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, J. Tisserand, S. Malfoy, and Y. Darbelly, Opt. Eng. 34, 2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heggarty, K.

M. Kessels and K. Heggarty, Microelectron. Eng. 86, 2385 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hintersteiner, J.

T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, J. Hintersteiner, K. Troost, J. Freyer, and K. van der Mast, Proc. SPIE 5377, 777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iemmi, C.

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Marquez, E. Also, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. Yzuel, Proc. SPIE 7442, 74420G (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, E. Fernández, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, Opt. Express 16, 16711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivey, P. A.

Jenness, N.

Jeziorska, A. M.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johannes, M.

Johnson, S.

Kang, N.-H.

K.-R. Kim, J. Yi, S.-H. Cho, N.-H. Kang, M.-W. Cho, B.-S. Shin, and B. Choi, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kessels, M.

M. Kessels and K. Heggarty, Microelectron. Eng. 86, 2385 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.-R.

K.-R. Kim, J. Yi, S.-H. Cho, N.-H. Kang, M.-W. Cho, B.-S. Shin, and B. Choi, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, S.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, Science 220, 671 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Komarcevic, M.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, N.

E. Buckley, A. Cable, N. Lawrence, and T. Wilkinson, Appl. Opt. 45, 7334 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cable, E. Buckley, P. Marsh, N. Lawrence, T. Wilkinson, and W. Crossland, in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2004), Vol. 35, pp. 1431–1433.
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Lizana, A.

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Marquez, E. Also, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. Yzuel, Proc. SPIE 7442, 74420G (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, E. Fernández, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, Opt. Express 16, 16711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maiden, A.

Malfoy, S.

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, J. Tisserand, S. Malfoy, and Y. Darbelly, Opt. Eng. 34, 2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marquez, A.

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Marquez, E. Also, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. Yzuel, Proc. SPIE 7442, 74420G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Márquez, A.

Marsh, P.

A. Cable, E. Buckley, P. Marsh, N. Lawrence, T. Wilkinson, and W. Crossland, in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2004), Vol. 35, pp. 1431–1433.
[CrossRef]

McWilliam, R.

Moore, J. R.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Marquez, E. Also, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. Yzuel, Proc. SPIE 7442, 74420G (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Márquez, C. Iemmi, E. Fernández, J. Campos, and M. J. Yzuel, Opt. Express 16, 16711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padgett, M. J.

Parker, R. J.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Purvis, A.

Sandstrom, T.

T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, J. Hintersteiner, K. Troost, J. Freyer, and K. van der Mast, Proc. SPIE 5377, 777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saxton, W. O.

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237 (1972).

Seed, N. L.

Seldowitz, M.

Shin, B.-S.

K.-R. Kim, J. Yi, S.-H. Cho, N.-H. Kang, M.-W. Cho, B.-S. Shin, and B. Choi, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Struchen, D.

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, J. Tisserand, S. Malfoy, and Y. Darbelly, Opt. Eng. 34, 2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D.

Tisserand, J.

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, J. Tisserand, S. Malfoy, and Y. Darbelly, Opt. Eng. 34, 2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Troost, K.

T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, J. Hintersteiner, K. Troost, J. Freyer, and K. van der Mast, Proc. SPIE 5377, 777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van der Mast, K.

T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, J. Hintersteiner, K. Troost, J. Freyer, and K. van der Mast, Proc. SPIE 5377, 777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vecchi, M. P.

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, Science 220, 671 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, T.

E. Buckley, A. Cable, N. Lawrence, and T. Wilkinson, Appl. Opt. 45, 7334 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cable, E. Buckley, P. Marsh, N. Lawrence, T. Wilkinson, and W. Crossland, in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2004), Vol. 35, pp. 1431–1433.
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, T. D.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. L.

Wulff, K.

Xu, H.

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yi, J.

K.-R. Kim, J. Yi, S.-H. Cho, N.-H. Kang, M.-W. Cho, B.-S. Shin, and B. Choi, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yzuel, M.

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Marquez, E. Also, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. Yzuel, Proc. SPIE 7442, 74420G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yzuel, M. J.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

K.-R. Kim, J. Yi, S.-H. Cho, N.-H. Kang, M.-W. Cho, B.-S. Shin, and B. Choi, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 7835 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. R. Moore, N. Collings, W. A. Crossland, A. B. Davey, M. Evans, A. M. Jeziorska, M. Komarcevic, R. J. Parker, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. Xu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 60 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

M. Kessels and K. Heggarty, Microelectron. Eng. 86, 2385 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Clube, S. Gray, D. Struchen, J. Tisserand, S. Malfoy, and Y. Darbelly, Opt. Eng. 34, 2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optik (Stuttgart) (1)

R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, Optik (Stuttgart) 35, 237 (1972).

Proc. SPIE (2)

T. Sandstrom, A. Bleeker, J. Hintersteiner, K. Troost, J. Freyer, and K. van der Mast, Proc. SPIE 5377, 777 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Lizana, I. Moreno, A. Marquez, E. Also, C. Iemmi, J. Campos, and M. Yzuel, Proc. SPIE 7442, 74420G (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

S. Kirkpatrick, C. D. Gelatt, and M. P. Vecchi, Science 220, 671 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

A. Cable, E. Buckley, P. Marsh, N. Lawrence, T. Wilkinson, and W. Crossland, in SID International Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2004), Vol. 35, pp. 1431–1433.
[CrossRef]

J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company, 2005).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the demonstrator system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Binary input image (left) and dummy area mask (right) used in the phase retrieval algorithm. Displayed in white is the target area and the part of the dummy area where no noise was allowed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photoresist on glass patterns generated by the maskless holographic optical lithographic demonstrator; the selected areas of the reconstructed input image (Fig. 2) were imaged via an optical microscope at (a) 10 × and (b), (c) 50 × magnification. The reconstruction shown at 50 × magnification in (d) was generated from a set of holograms displaying only one in four pixels of the same input image.

Metrics