Abstract

We demonstrate a resonant external cavity approach to enhance narrowband terahertz radiation through difference-frequency generation for the first time (to our knowledge). Two nanosecond laser pulses resonant in an optical cavity interact with a nonlinear crystal to produce a factor of 7 enhancement of terahertz power compared to a single-pass orientation. This external enhancement approach shows promise to significantly increase both terahertz power and conversion efficiency through optical pump pulse enhancement and effective recycling.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. W. Shi and Y. J. Ding, Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 560 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Creeden, J. C. McCarthy, P. A. Ketteridge, P. G. Schunemann, T. Southward, J. J. Komiak, and E. P. ChicklisOpt. Express 15, 6478 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Shi, M. Leigh, J. Zong, Z. Yao, D. Nguyen, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 377 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Shi and Y. J. Ding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1635 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, and P. G. Schunemann, Opt. Commun. 233, 183 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Kawase, T. Hatanaka, H. Takahashi, K. Nakamura, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 25, 1714 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Theuer, D. Molter, K. Maki, C. Otani, J. A. Lhuillier, and R. Beigang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041119 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals (Springer, 1999).
  11. R. Tanaka, T. Matsuzawa, H. Yokota, T. Suzuki, Y. Fujii, A. Mio, and M. Katsuragawa, Opt. Express 16, 18667 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Shi, E. B. Petersen, J. Meair, D. T. Nguyen, J. Zong, Z. Yao, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, Proc. SPIE 7631, 76310M (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

W. Shi, M. Leigh, J. Zong, Z. Yao, D. Nguyen, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, E. B. Petersen, J. Meair, D. T. Nguyen, J. Zong, Z. Yao, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, Proc. SPIE 7631, 76310M (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

R. Tanaka, T. Matsuzawa, H. Yokota, T. Suzuki, Y. Fujii, A. Mio, and M. Katsuragawa, Opt. Express 16, 18667 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Theuer, D. Molter, K. Maki, C. Otani, J. A. Lhuillier, and R. Beigang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2004 (3)

W. Shi and Y. J. Ding, Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 560 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi and Y. J. Ding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, and P. G. Schunemann, Opt. Commun. 233, 183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

K. Kawase, T. Hatanaka, H. Takahashi, K. Nakamura, T. Taniuchi, and H. Ito, Opt. Lett. 25, 1714 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals (Springer, 1999).

1988 (1)

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Beigang, R.

M. Theuer, D. Molter, K. Maki, C. Otani, J. A. Lhuillier, and R. Beigang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chavez-Pirson, A.

W. Shi, E. B. Petersen, J. Meair, D. T. Nguyen, J. Zong, Z. Yao, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, Proc. SPIE 7631, 76310M (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, M. Leigh, J. Zong, Z. Yao, D. Nguyen, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chicklis, E. P.

Creeden, D.

Ding, Y. J.

W. Shi and Y. J. Ding, Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 560 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi and Y. J. Ding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, and P. G. Schunemann, Opt. Commun. 233, 183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dmitriev, V. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals (Springer, 1999).

Fujii, Y.

Gurzadyan, G. G.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals (Springer, 1999).

Hatanaka, T.

Heilweil, E. J.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ito, H.

Katsuragawa, M.

Kawase, K.

Ketteridge, P. A.

Komiak, J. J.

Kozlovsky, W. J.

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Leigh, M.

W. Shi, M. Leigh, J. Zong, Z. Yao, D. Nguyen, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lhuillier, J. A.

M. Theuer, D. Molter, K. Maki, C. Otani, J. A. Lhuillier, and R. Beigang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maki, K.

M. Theuer, D. Molter, K. Maki, C. Otani, J. A. Lhuillier, and R. Beigang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Markelz, A. G.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matsuzawa, T.

McCarthy, J. C.

Meair, J.

W. Shi, E. B. Petersen, J. Meair, D. T. Nguyen, J. Zong, Z. Yao, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, Proc. SPIE 7631, 76310M (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mio, A.

Molter, D.

M. Theuer, D. Molter, K. Maki, C. Otani, J. A. Lhuillier, and R. Beigang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nabors, C. D.

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

Nguyen, D.

W. Shi, M. Leigh, J. Zong, Z. Yao, D. Nguyen, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D. T.

W. Shi, E. B. Petersen, J. Meair, D. T. Nguyen, J. Zong, Z. Yao, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, Proc. SPIE 7631, 76310M (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals (Springer, 1999).

Otani, C.

M. Theuer, D. Molter, K. Maki, C. Otani, J. A. Lhuillier, and R. Beigang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, E. B.

W. Shi, E. B. Petersen, J. Meair, D. T. Nguyen, J. Zong, Z. Yao, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, Proc. SPIE 7631, 76310M (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

W. Shi, E. B. Petersen, J. Meair, D. T. Nguyen, J. Zong, Z. Yao, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, Proc. SPIE 7631, 76310M (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, M. Leigh, J. Zong, Z. Yao, D. Nguyen, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roitberg, A.

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schunemann, P. G.

Shi, W.

W. Shi, M. Leigh, J. Zong, Z. Yao, D. Nguyen, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, E. B. Petersen, J. Meair, D. T. Nguyen, J. Zong, Z. Yao, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, Proc. SPIE 7631, 76310M (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi and Y. J. Ding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi and Y. J. Ding, Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 560 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, and P. G. Schunemann, Opt. Commun. 233, 183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Southward, T.

Suzuki, T.

Takahashi, H.

Tanaka, R.

Taniuchi, T.

Theuer, M.

M. Theuer, D. Molter, K. Maki, C. Otani, J. A. Lhuillier, and R. Beigang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Z.

W. Shi, M. Leigh, J. Zong, Z. Yao, D. Nguyen, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, E. B. Petersen, J. Meair, D. T. Nguyen, J. Zong, Z. Yao, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, Proc. SPIE 7631, 76310M (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, H.

Zong, J.

W. Shi, E. B. Petersen, J. Meair, D. T. Nguyen, J. Zong, Z. Yao, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, Proc. SPIE 7631, 76310M (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, M. Leigh, J. Zong, Z. Yao, D. Nguyen, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. Shi and Y. J. Ding, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1635 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Theuer, D. Molter, K. Maki, C. Otani, J. A. Lhuillier, and R. Beigang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 041119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. G. Markelz, A. Roitberg, and E. J. Heilweil, Chem. Phys. Lett. 320, 42 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. J. Kozlovsky, C. D. Nabors, and R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 913 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

W. Shi, M. Leigh, J. Zong, Z. Yao, D. Nguyen, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

W. Shi and Y. J. Ding, Laser Phys. Lett. 1, 560 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

W. Shi, Y. J. Ding, and P. G. Schunemann, Opt. Commun. 233, 183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. Shi, E. B. Petersen, J. Meair, D. T. Nguyen, J. Zong, Z. Yao, A. Chavez-Pirson, and N. Peyghambarian, Proc. SPIE 7631, 76310M (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals (Springer, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cavity diagram including two pulsed fiber lasers and one stabilizing CW fiber laser: M1, 17% transmitting input coupler; M2, 0.25 m radius mirrors; M3, piezo-mounted mirror; F1, HR 1550 nm and HT 1538 nm filter ( 5 % loss); F2, HT 1550 nm and HR 1538 nm filter ( 1 % loss); PD, photodiode; PBS, polarizing beam splitter. Cavity loss of 30%.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental (circles) and modeled (curve) pulse enhancement for 1 m cavity with 4.8% loss and 3% input transmission.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modeled (solid curve) and experimental (circles) pulse enhancement in the external ring cavity. (a) 57 ns pulse into a low-loss cavity (without ZGP); measured loss and input transmission were 4.8% and 3%, respectively. (b) 80 ns pulse to higher loss cavity (with ZGP), with 30% and 17% loss and input transmission.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Terahertz average power for input fiber laser pulse energy.

Equations (1)

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E cavity = T n = 0 ( 1 α ) n E ( t L n / c ) Exp [ i ( w ( t L n / c ) k z ) ] .

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