Abstract

We propose a photolithographic method to fabricate nanostructures by employing a localized surface plasmon (LSP) mask generated by a soft mold on a thin metal film. The soft mold can be formed by transparent materials, such as polydimethylsiloxane, contacting firmly to the metal film. The pattern edges of the mold, serving as the fine tapers, can be used to excite LSPs and accumulate a large amount of localized energy from the incident light field, providing a modulated optical field in the resist with nanometer feature size. Nanolithographic results with a minimum feature size of 30nm are demonstrated.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Riehn, A. Charas, J. Morgado, and F. Cacialli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 526 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, R. Houdre, S. Anand, and J. Berggren, Nanotechnology 13, 341 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Melngailis, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 80, 1271 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Zhang and Z. Liu, Nature Mater. 7, 435 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

R. J. Blaikie, L. Lin, and R. J. Reeves, Int. J. Nanotechnol. 6, 222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, Nature Mater. 7, 435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, C. Du, X. Dong, L. Shi, X. Luo, X. Wei, and Y. Zhang, Opt. Express. 16, 14397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wei, C. Du, X. Dong, X. Luo, Q. Deng, and Y. Zhang, Opt. Express 16, 14404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

X. Wei, X. Luo, X. Dong, and C. Du, Opt. Express 15, 14177 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, Nat. Nanotech. 2, 549 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Watt, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and J. A. van Kan, Mater. Today 10, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. D. Arnold and R. J. Blaikie, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IEEE Press, 2006), pp. 548–551.

2005 (2)

Z. Liu, Q. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Maria, S. Jeon, and J. A. Rogers, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 166, 149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

R. Riehn, A. Charas, J. Morgado, and F. Cacialli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, R. Houdre, S. Anand, and J. Berggren, Nanotechnology 13, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Schmid, H. Biebuyck, B. Michel, and O. J. F. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2379 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. A. McCord, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2125 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. Melngailis, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 80, 1271 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

G. M. Shedd and P. E. Russell, Nanotech. 1, 67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Anand, S.

J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, R. Houdre, S. Anand, and J. Berggren, Nanotechnology 13, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, M. D.

M. D. Arnold and R. J. Blaikie, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IEEE Press, 2006), pp. 548–551.

Berggren, J.

J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, R. Houdre, S. Anand, and J. Berggren, Nanotechnology 13, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bettiol, A. A.

F. Watt, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and J. A. van Kan, Mater. Today 10, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Biebuyck, H.

H. Schmid, H. Biebuyck, B. Michel, and O. J. F. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2379 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blaikie, R. J.

R. J. Blaikie, L. Lin, and R. J. Reeves, Int. J. Nanotechnol. 6, 222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Arnold and R. J. Blaikie, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IEEE Press, 2006), pp. 548–551.

Breese, M. B. H.

F. Watt, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and J. A. van Kan, Mater. Today 10, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cacialli, F.

R. Riehn, A. Charas, J. Morgado, and F. Cacialli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. W.

F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Charas, A.

R. Riehn, A. Charas, J. Morgado, and F. Cacialli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. J.

F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chien, F. C.

F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Q.

Dong, X.

Du, C.

Enkrich, C.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ferrini, R.

J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, R. Houdre, S. Anand, and J. Berggren, Nanotechnology 13, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, R. Houdre, S. Anand, and J. Berggren, Nanotechnology 13, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Henzie, J.

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, Nat. Nanotech. 2, 549 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Houdre, R.

J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, R. Houdre, S. Anand, and J. Berggren, Nanotechnology 13, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, S.

J. Maria, S. Jeon, and J. A. Rogers, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 166, 149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kamp, M.

J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, R. Houdre, S. Anand, and J. Berggren, Nanotechnology 13, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Koschny, T.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. L.

F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. H.

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, Nat. Nanotech. 2, 549 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leuenberger, D.

J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, R. Houdre, S. Anand, and J. Berggren, Nanotechnology 13, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

S. Li, C. Du, X. Dong, L. Shi, X. Luo, X. Wei, and Y. Zhang, Opt. Express. 16, 14397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. Y.

F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

R. J. Blaikie, L. Lin, and R. J. Reeves, Int. J. Nanotechnol. 6, 222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, Nature Mater. 7, 435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, Q. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

Maria, J.

J. Maria, S. Jeon, and J. A. Rogers, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 166, 149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

H. Schmid, H. Biebuyck, B. Michel, and O. J. F. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2379 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCord, M. A.

M. A. McCord, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2125 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Melngailis, J.

J. Melngailis, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 80, 1271 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Michel, B.

H. Schmid, H. Biebuyck, B. Michel, and O. J. F. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2379 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moosburger, J.

J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, R. Houdre, S. Anand, and J. Berggren, Nanotechnology 13, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morgado, J.

R. Riehn, A. Charas, J. Morgado, and F. Cacialli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Odom, T. W.

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, Nat. Nanotech. 2, 549 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reeves, R. J.

R. J. Blaikie, L. Lin, and R. J. Reeves, Int. J. Nanotechnol. 6, 222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Riehn, R.

R. Riehn, A. Charas, J. Morgado, and F. Cacialli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

J. Maria, S. Jeon, and J. A. Rogers, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 166, 149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. E.

G. M. Shedd and P. E. Russell, Nanotech. 1, 67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, H.

H. Schmid, H. Biebuyck, B. Michel, and O. J. F. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2379 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shedd, G. M.

G. M. Shedd and P. E. Russell, Nanotech. 1, 67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

S. Li, C. Du, X. Dong, L. Shi, X. Luo, X. Wei, and Y. Zhang, Opt. Express. 16, 14397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srituravanich, W.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. C.

F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Kan, J. A.

F. Watt, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and J. A. van Kan, Mater. Today 10, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watt, F.

F. Watt, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and J. A. van Kan, Mater. Today 10, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, P. K.

F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q.

Z. Liu, Q. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, X.

Yih, J. N.

F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, Nature Mater. 7, 435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, Q. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

X. Wei, C. Du, X. Dong, X. Luo, Q. Deng, and Y. Zhang, Opt. Express 16, 14404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Li, C. Du, X. Dong, L. Shi, X. Luo, X. Wei, and Y. Zhang, Opt. Express. 16, 14397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Riehn, A. Charas, J. Morgado, and F. Cacialli, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 526 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmid, H. Biebuyck, B. Michel, and O. J. F. Martin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2379 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

F. C. Chien, C. Y. Lin, J. N. Yih, K. L. Lee, C. W. Chang, P. K. Wei, C. C. Sun, and S. J. Chen, Biosens. Bioelectron. 22, 2737 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Nanotechnol. (1)

R. J. Blaikie, L. Lin, and R. J. Reeves, Int. J. Nanotechnol. 6, 222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. A (1)

J. Maria, S. Jeon, and J. A. Rogers, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 166, 149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. A. McCord, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 15, 2125 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Today (1)

F. Watt, M. B. H. Breese, A. A. Bettiol, and J. A. van Kan, Mater. Today 10, 20 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, Q. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotech. (1)

G. M. Shedd and P. E. Russell, Nanotech. 1, 67 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

J. Moosburger, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, R. Ferrini, D. Leuenberger, R. Houdre, S. Anand, and J. Berggren, Nanotechnology 13, 341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotech. (1)

J. Henzie, M. H. Lee, and T. W. Odom, Nat. Nanotech. 2, 549 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mater. (1)

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, Nature Mater. 7, 435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B (1)

J. Melngailis, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 80, 1271 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Express. (1)

S. Li, C. Du, X. Dong, L. Shi, X. Luo, X. Wei, and Y. Zhang, Opt. Express. 16, 14397 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (2)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Linden, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 306, 1351 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

M. D. Arnold and R. J. Blaikie, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (IEEE Press, 2006), pp. 548–551.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of nanolithographic system based on the LSP mask formed by a soft mold with structures.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation results for the electric field intensity distributions along the Z axis: (a) thickness of silver film is 20 nm , (b) without silver film, and (c) cross section of electric field intensity at the positions marked by the dark dashed line (a) and (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM photograph for a lithographic result fabricated by using the LSP lithographic method with the PDMS soft mold in 2 μm period and 0.8 μm linewidth. The inset is a magnified image highlighting the achieved minimum feature size of 30 nm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Minimum feature size and the normalized maximum intensity versus the thickness of silver film at different depths into the resist from silver film surface of 2 nm , 4 nm , 6 nm , 8 nm , 10 nm , and 14 nm , respectively.

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