Abstract

Recent work on underwater laser communication links uses polarization discrimination to improve system performance [Appl. Opt. 48, 328 (2009)] [in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–4]. In the laboratory, Maalox antacid is commonly used as a scattering agent. While its scattering function closely mimics that of natural seawaters, its scattering albedo can be much higher, as Maalox particles tend to be less absorbing. We present a series of experiments where Nigrosin dye is added to Maalox in order to more accurately recreate real-world absorption and scattering properties. We consider the effect that scattering albedo has on received power and the degree of depolarization of forward-scattered light in the context of underwater laser communication links.

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References

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  1. L. Mullen, B. Cochenour, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, and J. Muth, Appl. Opt. 48, 328 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. C. Cox, B. L. Hughes, and J. F. Muth, in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–4.
  3. F. Hanson and S. Radic, Appl. Opt. 47, 277 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. Lacovara, Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42, 93 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, and A. Laux, IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33, 513 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, and A. Laux, in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans 2007 (2007), pp. 1–5.
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Mobley, in Light and Water (Academic/Elsevier, 1994), p. 112.
  8. S. Duntley, Underwater Lighting by Submerged Lasers and Incandescent Sources (Scripps Institution of Oceanography Visibility Laboratory, 1971), Chap. 7.
  9. T. J. Petzold, Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters (Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Visibility Laboratory, 1972).
  10. A. Tonizzo, J. Zhou, A. Gilerson, M. S. Twardowski, D. J. Gray, R. A. Arnone, B. M. Gross, F. Moshary, and S. A. Ahmed, Opt. Express 17, 5666 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

P. Lacovara, Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42, 93 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, and A. Laux, IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33, 513 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Hanson and S. Radic, Appl. Opt. 47, 277 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahmed, S. A.

Arnone, R. A.

Cochenour, B.

L. Mullen, B. Cochenour, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, and J. Muth, Appl. Opt. 48, 328 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, and A. Laux, IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33, 513 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, and A. Laux, in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans 2007 (2007), pp. 1–5.
[CrossRef]

Cox, W. C.

W. C. Cox, B. L. Hughes, and J. F. Muth, in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–4.

Duntley, S.

S. Duntley, Underwater Lighting by Submerged Lasers and Incandescent Sources (Scripps Institution of Oceanography Visibility Laboratory, 1971), Chap. 7.

Gilerson, A.

Gray, D. J.

Gross, B. M.

Hanson, F.

Hughes, B. L.

W. C. Cox, B. L. Hughes, and J. F. Muth, in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–4.

Lacovara, P.

P. Lacovara, Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42, 93 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laux, A.

B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, and A. Laux, IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33, 513 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, and A. Laux, in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans 2007 (2007), pp. 1–5.
[CrossRef]

Mahon, R.

Mobley, C.

C. Mobley, in Light and Water (Academic/Elsevier, 1994), p. 112.

Moshary, F.

Mullen, L.

L. Mullen, B. Cochenour, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, and J. Muth, Appl. Opt. 48, 328 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, and A. Laux, IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33, 513 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, and A. Laux, in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans 2007 (2007), pp. 1–5.
[CrossRef]

Muth, J.

Muth, J. F.

W. C. Cox, B. L. Hughes, and J. F. Muth, in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–4.

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters (Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Visibility Laboratory, 1972).

Rabinovich, W. S.

Radic, S.

Tonizzo, A.

Twardowski, M. S.

Zhou, J.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Oceanic Eng.

B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, and A. Laux, IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. 33, 513 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Technol. Soc. J.

P. Lacovara, Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 42, 93 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

B. Cochenour, L. Mullen, and A. Laux, in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans 2007 (2007), pp. 1–5.
[CrossRef]

C. Mobley, in Light and Water (Academic/Elsevier, 1994), p. 112.

S. Duntley, Underwater Lighting by Submerged Lasers and Incandescent Sources (Scripps Institution of Oceanography Visibility Laboratory, 1971), Chap. 7.

T. J. Petzold, Volume Scattering Functions for Selected Ocean Waters (Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Visibility Laboratory, 1972).

W. C. Cox, B. L. Hughes, and J. F. Muth, in Proceedings of IEEE Oceans 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–4.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experiment results showing (a) copolarized and (b) crosspolarized forward scattered light versus attenuation length for each albedo.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scattering factor, η, versus scattering albedo for each polarization state.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

DOP versus attenuation length for each scattering albedo.

Equations (4)

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P R ( d ) = P 0 exp ( c d ) ,
P R ( d ) = P 0 exp ( γ d ) where γ = a + ( 1 η ) b ,
P R ( c d ) = P 0 exp ( [ 1 η ω 0 ] c d ) .
P R ( c d ) = P 0 exp ( [ 1 ω 0 ] c d ) .

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