Abstract

We demonstrated a single-walled carbon-nanotube-deposited planar lightwave circuit (PLC) waveguide for four-wave-mixing (FWM)-based wavelength conversion. FWM is generated from the interaction between the propagating light through the PLC waveguide and the deposited carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the overcladding-removed core of the waveguide. The third-order nonlinearity of the CNTs is originated from the interband transitions of the π electrons causing nonlinear polarization similar to other highly nonlinear organic optical materials. FWM-based tunable wavelength conversion of a 10Gbit/s non-return-to-zero signal is achieved with a power penalty of 3dB in the bit-error-rate measurements. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a CNT-technology-based device for integrated photonic applications.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2010 (1)

K. K. Chow, M. Tsuji, and S. Yamashita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

Ph. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, Nat. Photon. 2, 341 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

A. Maeda, S. Matsumoto, H. Kishida, T. Takenobu, Y. Iwasa, M. Shiraishi, M. Ata, and H. Okamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, Y. Miyauchi, M. Hu, M. Ogura, T. Okubo, and S. Maruyama, Chem. Phys. Lett. 385, 298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, Opt. Lett. 29, 1581 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, Adv. Mater. 15, 534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Vl. A. Margulis, E. A. Gaiduk, and E. N. Zhidkin, Diam. Rel. Mater. 10, 27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Vl. A. Margulis, E. A. Gaiduk, and E. N. Zhidkin, Diam. Rel. Mater. 8, 1240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y. H. Lee, S. G. Kim, D. T. Colbert, G. Scuseria, D. Tománek, J. E. Fischer, and R. E. Smalley, Science 273, 483 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

S. Iijima and T. Ichihashi, Nature 363, 603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Achiba, Y.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd ed.(Academic, 2001).

Ajayan, P. M.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ata, M.

A. Maeda, S. Matsumoto, H. Kishida, T. Takenobu, Y. Iwasa, M. Shiraishi, M. Ata, and H. Okamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avouris, Ph.

Ph. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, Nat. Photon. 2, 341 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. C.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chiashi, S.

Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, Y. Miyauchi, M. Hu, M. Ogura, T. Okubo, and S. Maruyama, Chem. Phys. Lett. 385, 298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chow, K. K.

K. K. Chow, M. Tsuji, and S. Yamashita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chow and S. Yamashita, Opt. Express 17, 15608 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colbert, D. T.

A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y. H. Lee, S. G. Kim, D. T. Colbert, G. Scuseria, D. Tománek, J. E. Fischer, and R. E. Smalley, Science 273, 483 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, H.

A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y. H. Lee, S. G. Kim, D. T. Colbert, G. Scuseria, D. Tománek, J. E. Fischer, and R. E. Smalley, Science 273, 483 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Fischer, J. E.

A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y. H. Lee, S. G. Kim, D. T. Colbert, G. Scuseria, D. Tománek, J. E. Fischer, and R. E. Smalley, Science 273, 483 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freitag, M.

Ph. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, Nat. Photon. 2, 341 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Furuki, M.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, Adv. Mater. 15, 534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gaiduk, E. A.

Vl. A. Margulis, E. A. Gaiduk, and E. N. Zhidkin, Diam. Rel. Mater. 10, 27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vl. A. Margulis, E. A. Gaiduk, and E. N. Zhidkin, Diam. Rel. Mater. 8, 1240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hu, M.

Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, Y. Miyauchi, M. Hu, M. Ogura, T. Okubo, and S. Maruyama, Chem. Phys. Lett. 385, 298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ichihashi, T.

S. Iijima and T. Ichihashi, Nature 363, 603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Iijima, S.

S. Iijima and T. Ichihashi, Nature 363, 603 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, Y.

Iwasa, I.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, Adv. Mater. 15, 534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iwasa, Y.

A. Maeda, S. Matsumoto, H. Kishida, T. Takenobu, Y. Iwasa, M. Shiraishi, M. Ata, and H. Okamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jablonski, M.

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, Opt. Lett. 29, 1581 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

Kataura, H.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

Kikuchi, K.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

Kim, S. G.

A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y. H. Lee, S. G. Kim, D. T. Colbert, G. Scuseria, D. Tománek, J. E. Fischer, and R. E. Smalley, Science 273, 483 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kishida, H.

A. Maeda, S. Matsumoto, H. Kishida, T. Takenobu, Y. Iwasa, M. Shiraishi, M. Ata, and H. Okamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, R.

A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y. H. Lee, S. G. Kim, D. T. Colbert, G. Scuseria, D. Tománek, J. E. Fischer, and R. E. Smalley, Science 273, 483 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y. H. Lee, S. G. Kim, D. T. Colbert, G. Scuseria, D. Tománek, J. E. Fischer, and R. E. Smalley, Science 273, 483 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, T. M.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, A.

A. Maeda, S. Matsumoto, H. Kishida, T. Takenobu, Y. Iwasa, M. Shiraishi, M. Ata, and H. Okamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margulis, Vl. A.

Vl. A. Margulis, E. A. Gaiduk, and E. N. Zhidkin, Diam. Rel. Mater. 10, 27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vl. A. Margulis, E. A. Gaiduk, and E. N. Zhidkin, Diam. Rel. Mater. 8, 1240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, S.

Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, Y. Miyauchi, M. Hu, M. Ogura, T. Okubo, and S. Maruyama, Chem. Phys. Lett. 385, 298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, Opt. Lett. 29, 1581 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, S.

A. Maeda, S. Matsumoto, H. Kishida, T. Takenobu, Y. Iwasa, M. Shiraishi, M. Ata, and H. Okamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitsu, H.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, Adv. Mater. 15, 534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miyauchi, Y.

Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, Y. Miyauchi, M. Hu, M. Ogura, T. Okubo, and S. Maruyama, Chem. Phys. Lett. 385, 298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, Y.

Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, Y. Miyauchi, M. Hu, M. Ogura, T. Okubo, and S. Maruyama, Chem. Phys. Lett. 385, 298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, Opt. Lett. 29, 1581 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicholson, J. W.

Nikolaev, P.

A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y. H. Lee, S. G. Kim, D. T. Colbert, G. Scuseria, D. Tománek, J. E. Fischer, and R. E. Smalley, Science 273, 483 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogura, M.

Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, Y. Miyauchi, M. Hu, M. Ogura, T. Okubo, and S. Maruyama, Chem. Phys. Lett. 385, 298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, H.

A. Maeda, S. Matsumoto, H. Kishida, T. Takenobu, Y. Iwasa, M. Shiraishi, M. Ata, and H. Okamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okubo, T.

Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, Y. Miyauchi, M. Hu, M. Ogura, T. Okubo, and S. Maruyama, Chem. Phys. Lett. 385, 298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Perebeinos, V.

Ph. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, Nat. Photon. 2, 341 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petit, P.

A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y. H. Lee, S. G. Kim, D. T. Colbert, G. Scuseria, D. Tománek, J. E. Fischer, and R. E. Smalley, Science 273, 483 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raravikar, N. R.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Robert, J.

A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y. H. Lee, S. G. Kim, D. T. Colbert, G. Scuseria, D. Tománek, J. E. Fischer, and R. E. Smalley, Science 273, 483 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rozhin, A.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

Sakakibara, Y.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

Sato, Y.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, Adv. Mater. 15, 534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schadler, L. S.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scuseria, G.

A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y. H. Lee, S. G. Kim, D. T. Colbert, G. Scuseria, D. Tománek, J. E. Fischer, and R. E. Smalley, Science 273, 483 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Set, S. Y.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, Opt. Lett. 29, 1581 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

Shiraishi, M.

A. Maeda, S. Matsumoto, H. Kishida, T. Takenobu, Y. Iwasa, M. Shiraishi, M. Ata, and H. Okamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smalley, R. E.

A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y. H. Lee, S. G. Kim, D. T. Colbert, G. Scuseria, D. Tománek, J. E. Fischer, and R. E. Smalley, Science 273, 483 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takenobu, T.

A. Maeda, S. Matsumoto, H. Kishida, T. Takenobu, Y. Iwasa, M. Shiraishi, M. Ata, and H. Okamoto, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, Y.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

Tatsuura, S.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, Adv. Mater. 15, 534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thess, A.

A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y. H. Lee, S. G. Kim, D. T. Colbert, G. Scuseria, D. Tománek, J. E. Fischer, and R. E. Smalley, Science 273, 483 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, M.

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, Adv. Mater. 15, 534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tokumoto, M.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

Tománek, D.

A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y. H. Lee, S. G. Kim, D. T. Colbert, G. Scuseria, D. Tománek, J. E. Fischer, and R. E. Smalley, Science 273, 483 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuji, M.

K. K. Chow, M. Tsuji, and S. Yamashita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. C.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Xu, C.

A. Thess, R. Lee, P. Nikolaev, H. Dai, P. Petit, J. Robert, C. Xu, Y. H. Lee, S. G. Kim, D. T. Colbert, G. Scuseria, D. Tománek, J. E. Fischer, and R. E. Smalley, Science 273, 483 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yaguchi, H.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, Opt. Lett. 29, 1581 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, Y. Tanaka, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2003), paper FL2.

Yamashita, S.

Zhang, X. C.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. P.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhidkin, E. N.

Vl. A. Margulis, E. A. Gaiduk, and E. N. Zhidkin, Diam. Rel. Mater. 10, 27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vl. A. Margulis, E. A. Gaiduk, and E. N. Zhidkin, Diam. Rel. Mater. 8, 1240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Tatsuura, M. Furuki, Y. Sato, I. Iwasa, M. Tian, and H. Mitsu, Adv. Mater. 15, 534 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. K. Chow, M. Tsuji, and S. Yamashita, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 061104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Murakami, S. Chiashi, Y. Miyauchi, M. Hu, M. Ogura, T. Okubo, and S. Maruyama, Chem. Phys. Lett. 385, 298 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Diam. Rel. Mater. (2)

Vl. A. Margulis, E. A. Gaiduk, and E. N. Zhidkin, Diam. Rel. Mater. 8, 1240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vl. A. Margulis, E. A. Gaiduk, and E. N. Zhidkin, Diam. Rel. Mater. 10, 27 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 10, 137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectrum of the deposited CNTs measured by a spectrophotometer from 800 to 1600 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic illustration of planar lightwave circuit (PLC) waveguide with overcladding removed for CNT deposition in cross view (left) and top view (right). (b) Photo of CNT-deposited PLC waveguide with fiber coupling.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM image of the deposited CNTs on the PLC waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup of FWM in a CNT-deposited PLC waveguide: ECL, external cavity laser; EDFA, erbium-doped fiber amplifier; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; BERT, bit- error-rate test set.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) FWM spectrum obtained after the CNT-deposited PLC waveguide and the corresponding close-up views of the (b) converted and (c) input signal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of conversion efficiency against wavelength detuning.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plot of BER against received optical power. Inset, 10 Gb i t / s eye diagrams of the input signal (upper) and the converted signal (lower).

Equations (1)

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η ( L ) = ( γ P L ) 2 ,

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