Abstract

We propose and demonstrate an ultrasensitive photonic crystal fiber refractive index sensor by introducing the avoided-crossing effect in a bent-controlled fluid-filled photonic-bandgap fiber (FF-PBGF). By controlling the bend radius of the FF-PBGF, resonant couplings between the fundamental core mode and the cladding modes are realized and transmission notches are observed in the transmission band of the FF-PBGF. By changing the refractive index or temperature of the bent FF-PBGF, a sensitivity of 32,400 nm per refractive index unit (or 13.1nm/°C) is achieved, which is the highest for a fiber device to date, to our best knowledge.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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2010 (1)

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

N. M. Litchinitser and E. Poliakov, Appl. Phys. B 81, 347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, and M. Zoboli, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1530 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1978 (1)

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Bang, O.

Bassi, P.

Borelli, E.

Cucinotta, A.

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, and M. Zoboli, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1530 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deng, M.

Eggleton, B. J.

Fan, X. D.

Han, M.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Kawakami, S.

Koshiba, M.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Laegsgaard, J.

Li, J.

Litchinitser, N. M.

N. M. Litchinitser and E. Poliakov, Appl. Phys. B 81, 347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Magi, E. C.

Moore, E. D.

Murao, T.

Nagano, K.

Nishida, S.

Noordegraaf, D.

Poliakov, E.

N. M. Litchinitser and E. Poliakov, Appl. Phys. B 81, 347 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y. J.

Rindorf, L.

Saitoh, K.

Scolari, L.

Selleri, S.

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, and M. Zoboli, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1530 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Q.

Q. Shi and B. T. Kuhlmey, Opt. Commun. 282, 4723 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steinvurzel, P.

Tang, C. P.

Tartarini, G.

Vincetti, L.

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, and M. Zoboli, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1530 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

Wu, D. K. C.

Wu, S. T.

Xu, L. C.

Zhu, T.

Zoboli, M.

A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, L. Vincetti, and M. Zoboli, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 14, 1530 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theory model for simulation and the transformed refractive index profile along the x axis with a bend radius of 5 mm at 1550 nm ; inset is the microscope image of the PCF used in our experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Bandgap boundaries of the straight (central curves at each mode) and the bent FF-PBGF (left and right curves at each mode), and the dispersion curve (dashed curve) of the fundamental mode of the straight fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dispersion curves of the fundamental mode (solid curves) of the FF-PBGF with a bend radius of 5 mm at 70 ° C and mode-field distributions at anticrossing points. The dotted curve is the confinement loss of the fundamental mode of the straight FF-PBGF at 70 ° C .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Resonant wavelengths happening at anticrossing points 1, 3, and 4 as shown in Fig. 2 as a function of temperature calculated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission spectra of the bent FF-PBGF under different temperatures.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured resonant wavelengths as a function of temperature.

Equations (1)

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S = d λ c d n fluid = 1 ξ λ c ( n g , core eff n g , cladding eff ) λ = λ c ( n core eff n cladding eff ) T .

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