Abstract

A cavity-resonator-integrated grating input/output coupler (CRIGIC) is designed to operate at about 850nm wavelength for high-efficiency vertical coupling of a guided wave and a free-space wave with a small aperture. The CRIGIC consists of a grating coupler and a waveguide cavity resonator constructed by two distributed Bragg reflectors. A coupling efficiency of 96% with a 3dB bandwidth of 1.2nm is predicted by a theoretical calculation. An output coupling efficiency of about 60% is experimentally demonstrated on a 20μm aperture device, fabricated in a thin-film SiO2-based waveguide on a substrate with an Au reflection layer, for what we believe to be the first time.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 32, 1495 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Van Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 396 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1914 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Ura, S. Murata, Y. Awatsuji, and K. Kintaka, Opt. Express 16, 12207 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, K. Shinoda, and S. Ura, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2299 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Ura, K. Shinoda, K. Kintaka, C. Ito, D. Nii, K. Nishio, and Y. Awatsuji, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6664 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Yokota, R. Satoh, Y. Iwata, K. Fujimoto, S. Ura, and K. Kintaka, IEEE Trans. Comp. Packag. Technol. 29, 54(2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, S. Murata, Y. Awatsuji, and K. Kintaka, Opt. Express 16, 12207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ura, K. Shinoda, K. Kintaka, C. Ito, D. Nii, K. Nishio, and Y. Awatsuji, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

K. Yokota, R. Satoh, Y. Iwata, K. Fujimoto, S. Ura, and K. Kintaka, IEEE Trans. Comp. Packag. Technol. 29, 54(2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, K. Shinoda, and S. Ura, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Awatsuji, Y.

S. Ura, S. Murata, Y. Awatsuji, and K. Kintaka, Opt. Express 16, 12207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ura, K. Shinoda, K. Kintaka, C. Ito, D. Nii, K. Nishio, and Y. Awatsuji, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ayre, M.

Baets, R.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, Opt. Lett. 32, 1495 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 396 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Mesel, K.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, K.

K. Yokota, R. Satoh, Y. Iwata, K. Fujimoto, S. Ura, and K. Kintaka, IEEE Trans. Comp. Packag. Technol. 29, 54(2006).
[CrossRef]

Ito, C.

S. Ura, K. Shinoda, K. Kintaka, C. Ito, D. Nii, K. Nishio, and Y. Awatsuji, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iwata, Y.

K. Yokota, R. Satoh, Y. Iwata, K. Fujimoto, S. Ura, and K. Kintaka, IEEE Trans. Comp. Packag. Technol. 29, 54(2006).
[CrossRef]

Kintaka, K.

S. Ura, K. Shinoda, K. Kintaka, C. Ito, D. Nii, K. Nishio, and Y. Awatsuji, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ura, S. Murata, Y. Awatsuji, and K. Kintaka, Opt. Express 16, 12207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, K. Shinoda, and S. Ura, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Yokota, R. Satoh, Y. Iwata, K. Fujimoto, S. Ura, and K. Kintaka, IEEE Trans. Comp. Packag. Technol. 29, 54(2006).
[CrossRef]

Kotlyar, M. V.

F. Van Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 396 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

F. Van Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 396 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murata, S.

Nii, D.

S. Ura, K. Shinoda, K. Kintaka, C. Ito, D. Nii, K. Nishio, and Y. Awatsuji, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, K. Shinoda, and S. Ura, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishio, K.

S. Ura, K. Shinoda, K. Kintaka, C. Ito, D. Nii, K. Nishio, and Y. Awatsuji, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

Satoh, R.

K. Yokota, R. Satoh, Y. Iwata, K. Fujimoto, S. Ura, and K. Kintaka, IEEE Trans. Comp. Packag. Technol. 29, 54(2006).
[CrossRef]

Schrauwen, J.

Shinoda, K.

S. Ura, K. Shinoda, K. Kintaka, C. Ito, D. Nii, K. Nishio, and Y. Awatsuji, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, K. Shinoda, and S. Ura, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 396 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ura, S.

S. Ura, S. Murata, Y. Awatsuji, and K. Kintaka, Opt. Express 16, 12207 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ura, K. Shinoda, K. Kintaka, C. Ito, D. Nii, K. Nishio, and Y. Awatsuji, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Yokota, R. Satoh, Y. Iwata, K. Fujimoto, S. Ura, and K. Kintaka, IEEE Trans. Comp. Packag. Technol. 29, 54(2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, K. Shinoda, and S. Ura, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Daele, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Laere, F.

F. Van Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 396 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 151 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

Verstuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, K.

K. Yokota, R. Satoh, Y. Iwata, K. Fujimoto, S. Ura, and K. Kintaka, IEEE Trans. Comp. Packag. Technol. 29, 54(2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. F. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38, 949 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (3)

F. Van Laere, M. V. Kotlyar, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. F. Krauss, and R. Baets, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 19, 396 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 20, 1914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kintaka, J. Nishii, K. Shinoda, and S. Ura, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 2299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comp. Packag. Technol. (1)

K. Yokota, R. Satoh, Y. Iwata, K. Fujimoto, S. Ura, and K. Kintaka, IEEE Trans. Comp. Packag. Technol. 29, 54(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Ura, K. Shinoda, K. Kintaka, C. Ito, D. Nii, K. Nishio, and Y. Awatsuji, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47, 6664 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional structure of the designed CRIGIC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the output coupling efficiency on the buffer thickness. The curve and closed circles denote the theoretical and measured values, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Theoretically calculated wavelength dependence of output, transmission, and reflection efficiencies of the designed CRIGIC.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured (closed circles) and theoretical (solid curve) wavelength dependence of output efficiency of the fabricated device.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Device Parameters for an Operating Wavelength λ of 842.6 nm

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