Abstract

We demonstrate high-harmonic generation in H2O using 800 and 1300nm laser pulses up to a maximum intensity of 5×1014W/cm2. Under optimal phase-matching conditions, photon energies up to ~60 and ~87 eV are produced by using 800 and 1300nm light, respectively. The harmonic spectra in H2O, when compared with Xe with a similar ionization potential, exhibit significant extension of the cutoff region, indicating suppression of ionization arising from molecular orbital symmetry.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Flettner, T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 77, 747 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K Son and S.-I. Chu, Chem. Phys. 366, 91 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. D. DiChiara, E. Sistrunk, T. A. Miller, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, Opt. Express 17, 20959 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. -P Brichta, M. C. H. Wong, J. B. Bertrand, H. -C. Bandulet, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, Phys. Rev. A 79, 033404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H. -C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J. -C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2004 (1)

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Nature 432, 867 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

A. Flettner, T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 77, 747 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 203004 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

B. Shan, X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, Z. Cheng, and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 061401(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. Talebpour, C. -Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, J. Phys. B 29, L677 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Agostini, P.

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Bandulet, H. -C.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H. -C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J. -C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. -P Brichta, M. C. H. Wong, J. B. Bertrand, H. -C. Bandulet, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, Phys. Rev. A 79, 033404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bertrand, J. B.

J. -P Brichta, M. C. H. Wong, J. B. Bertrand, H. -C. Bandulet, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, Phys. Rev. A 79, 033404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

J. -P Brichta, M. C. H. Wong, J. B. Bertrand, H. -C. Bandulet, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, Phys. Rev. A 79, 033404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 203004 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brichta, J. -P

J. -P Brichta, M. C. H. Wong, J. B. Bertrand, H. -C. Bandulet, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, Phys. Rev. A 79, 033404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. -C.

Cheng, Z.

B. Shan, X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, Z. Cheng, and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 061401(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C. -Y.

A. Talebpour, C. -Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, J. Phys. B 29, L677 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

A. Talebpour, C. -Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, J. Phys. B 29, L677 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.-I.

S.-K Son and S.-I. Chu, Chem. Phys. 366, 91 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

Comtois, D.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H. -C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J. -C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H. -C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J. -C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Nature 432, 867 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 203004 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

DiChiara, A. D.

DiMauro, L. F.

Drescher, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudovich, N.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flettner, A.

A. Flettner, T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 77, 747 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, G.

A. Flettner, T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 77, 747 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gigu, M.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H. -C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J. -C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grisham, M. E.

Heinzmann, U.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hentschel, M.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Nature 432, 867 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Y.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kajumba, N.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H. -C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J. -C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kieffer, J. C.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Nature 432, 867 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kieffer, J. -C.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H. -C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J. -C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Krausz, F.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Légaré, F.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H. -C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J. -C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levesque, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Nature 432, 867 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. D.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Shan, X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, Z. Cheng, and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 061401(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mairesse, Y.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, T. A.

Milosevic, N.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murname, M. M.

Niikura, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Nature 432, 867 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patchkovskii, S.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pépin, H.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Nature 432, 867 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeifer, T.

A. Flettner, T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 77, 747 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Popmintchev, T.

Rayner, D. M.

J. -P Brichta, M. C. H. Wong, J. B. Bertrand, H. -C. Bandulet, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, Phys. Rev. A 79, 033404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 203004 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reider, G. A.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rocca, J. J.

Shan, B.

B. Shan, X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, Z. Cheng, and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 061401(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shiner, A. D.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H. -C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J. -C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sistrunk, E.

Smirnova, O.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Son, S.-K

S.-K Son and S.-I. Chu, Chem. Phys. 366, 91 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, C.

A. Flettner, T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 77, 747 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spielmann, Ch.

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talebpour, A.

A. Talebpour, C. -Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, J. Phys. B 29, L677 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X. M.

B. Shan, X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, Z. Cheng, and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 061401(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trallero-Herrero, C.

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H. -C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J. -C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H. -C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J. -C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Nature 432, 867 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walter, D.

A. Flettner, T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 77, 747 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Winterfeldt, C.

A. Flettner, T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 77, 747 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M. C. H.

J. -P Brichta, M. C. H. Wong, J. B. Bertrand, H. -C. Bandulet, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, Phys. Rev. A 79, 033404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zeidler, D.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Nature 432, 867 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z. X.

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Shan, X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, Z. Cheng, and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 061401(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Flettner, T. Pfeifer, D. Walter, C. Winterfeldt, C. Spielmann, and G. Gerber, Appl. Phys. B 77, 747 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

S.-K Son and S.-I. Chu, Chem. Phys. 366, 91 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

A. Talebpour, C. -Y. Chien, and S. L. Chin, J. Phys. B 29, L677 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

M. Hentschel, R. Kienberger, Ch. Spielmann, G. A. Reider, N. Milosevic, T. Brabec, P. Corkum, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, Nature 414, 509 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Nature 432, 867 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and M. Y. Ivanov, Nature 460, 972 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

B. Shan, X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, Z. Cheng, and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 061401(R) (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. -P Brichta, M. C. H. Wong, J. B. Bertrand, H. -C. Bandulet, D. M. Rayner, and V. R. Bhardwaj, Phys. Rev. A 79, 033404 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Tong, Z. X. Zhao, and C. D. Lin, Phys. Rev. A 66, 033402 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Rayner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 203004 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Shiner, C. Trallero-Herrero, N. Kajumba, H. -C. Bandulet, D. Comtois, F. Légaré, M. Giguère, J. -C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 073902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Harmonic spectra for (a)–(d) H 2 O and (e) Xe using 800 nm light in a semi-infinite gas cell at intensities (a) 5.0 × 10 14 W / cm 2 , (b) 3.5 × 10 14 W / cm 2 , (c) 2.5 × 10 14 W / cm 2 , (d) and (e) 1.5 × 10 14 W / cm 2 . Bold arrows in (a)–(d) indicate observed cutoffs in Xe at corresponding intensities.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Divergence of harmonic orders obtined by using 800 nm light at an intensity of 3.5 × 10 14 W / cm 2 . Solid curve, calculated divergence based on input beam parameters. Inset, spatial profile of the 11th harmonic (solid curve) for H 2 O with a Gaussian fit (dashed curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of harmonic spectra for H 2 O (upper panel) and Xe (lower panel) using 1300 nm light at an intensity of 1.5 × 10 14 W / cm 2 .

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