Abstract

We extend the work of photon sieves to spiral photon sieves (SPSs) for the generation of a hard-x-ray vortex. A robust digital prolate spheroidal window, which has an optimal energy concentration at low frequencies, was used to adjust the number of pinholes on each ring of the SPS. It was demonstrated that an SPS has better spatial resolution and lower background than a spiral zone plate using the specified smallest structures condition. The intensity at the center of the dark core is difficult to damp to true zero, primarily owing to current limitations of high-aspect-ratio metal nanostructures. The diameter of the dark core increases as the charge value increases. However, the FWHM of the doughnut-shaped ring and background will also increase. Our results pave the way toward the design of high-performance SPSs for the generation of a hard-x-ray vortex.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2006 (3)

G. Andersen, Proc. SPIE 6273, 62730K (2006).
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D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, A. Carpentiero, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1360 (2006).
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F. Giménez, Juan A. Monsoriu, Walter D. Furlan, and Amparo Pons, Opt. Express 14, 11958 (2006).
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2005 (3)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

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M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
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D. M. Gruenbacher and D. R. Hummels, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 42, 3276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

R. K. Kupka, Y. Chen, F. Rousseaux, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, and H. Launois, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11, 667(1993).

Z. Jaroszewicz and A. Koodziejczyk, Opt. Commun. 102, 391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1989 (1)

A. T. Walden, Signal Process. 18, 341 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

D. Slepian and H. O. Pollak, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 43 (1961).

Adelung, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, G.

Anderson, E. H.

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, Opt. Express 17, 17669 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, P. Fischer, and D.-H. Kim, Proc. SPIE 6883, 688309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barbastathis, G.

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berndt, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bilbao, S.

T. Verma, S. Bilbao, and T. H. Y. Meng, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP-96) (IEEE, 1996), pp. 1351–1354.

Businaro, L.

D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, A. Carpentiero, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cabrini, S.

D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, A. Carpentiero, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Q.

Carpentiero, A.

D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, A. Carpentiero, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, Opt. Express 17, 17669 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, P. Fischer, and D.-H. Kim, Proc. SPIE 6883, 688309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

R. K. Kupka, Y. Chen, F. Rousseaux, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, and H. Launois, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11, 667(1993).

Coerwinkel, R. P. C.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cojoc, D.

D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, A. Carpentiero, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Di Fabrizio, E.

D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, A. Carpentiero, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, P.

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, Opt. Express 17, 17669 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, P. Fischer, and D.-H. Kim, Proc. SPIE 6883, 688309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foo, G.

Furlan, W. D.

F. Giménez, W. D. Furlan, and J. A. Monsoriu, Opt. Commun. 277, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Furlan, Walter D.

Gil, D.

Giménez, F.

Gruenbacher, D. M.

D. M. Gruenbacher and D. R. Hummels, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 42, 3276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Haghiri-Gosnet, A. M.

R. K. Kupka, Y. Chen, F. Rousseaux, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, and H. Launois, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11, 667(1993).

Harm, S.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harvey, E.

Hayes, J. P.

Heckenberg, N. R.

Hummels, D. R.

D. M. Gruenbacher and D. R. Hummels, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 42, 3276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jahns, J.

Jaroszewicz, Z.

Z. Jaroszewicz and A. Koodziejczyk, Opt. Commun. 102, 391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jia, J.

Johnson, R. L.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaulich, B.

D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, A. Carpentiero, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-H.

W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, P. Fischer, and D.-H. Kim, Proc. SPIE 6883, 688309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

Kipp, L.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koodziejczyk, A.

Z. Jaroszewicz and A. Koodziejczyk, Opt. Commun. 102, 391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kupka, R. K.

R. K. Kupka, Y. Chen, F. Rousseaux, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, and H. Launois, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11, 667(1993).

Lai, B.

Launois, H.

R. K. Kupka, Y. Chen, F. Rousseaux, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, and H. Launois, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11, 667(1993).

Lemahieu, I.

D. Van De Ville, W. Philips, and I. Lemahieu, IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 9(3), 89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Mancuso, A. P.

McDuff, R.

McMahon, P. J.

McNulty, I.

Meng, T. H. Y.

T. Verma, S. Bilbao, and T. H. Y. Meng, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP-96) (IEEE, 1996), pp. 1351–1354.

Menon, R.

Monsoriu, J. A.

F. Giménez, W. D. Furlan, and J. A. Monsoriu, Opt. Commun. 277, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Monsoriu, Juan A.

Nugent, K. A.

Palacios, D. M.

Paterson, D.

Peele, A. G.

Philips, W.

D. Van De Ville, W. Philips, and I. Lemahieu, IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 9(3), 89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pollak, H. O.

D. Slepian and H. O. Pollak, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 43 (1961).

Pons, Amparo

Rekawa, S.

Rousseaux, F.

R. K. Kupka, Y. Chen, F. Rousseaux, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, and H. Launois, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11, 667(1993).

Sakdinawat, A.

Seemann, R.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skibowski, M.

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slepian, D.

D. Slepian and H. O. Pollak, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 43 (1961).

Smith, C. P.

Smith, H. I.

Swartzlander, G. A.

Tran, C. Q.

Tullson, D.

Van De Ville, D.

D. Van De Ville, W. Philips, and I. Lemahieu, IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 9(3), 89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Verma, T.

T. Verma, S. Bilbao, and T. H. Y. Meng, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP-96) (IEEE, 1996), pp. 1351–1354.

Walden, A. T.

A. T. Walden, Signal Process. 18, 341 (1989).
[CrossRef]

White, A. G.

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

Zhu, X.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bell System Tech. J. (1)

D. Slepian and H. O. Pollak, Bell System Tech. J. 40, 43 (1961).

IEEE Signal Process. Lett. (1)

D. Van De Ville, W. Philips, and I. Lemahieu, IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 9(3), 89 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Signal Process. (1)

D. M. Gruenbacher and D. R. Hummels, IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 42, 3276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

R. K. Kupka, Y. Chen, F. Rousseaux, A. M. Haghiri-Gosnet, and H. Launois, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B11, 667(1993).

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

D. Cojoc, B. Kaulich, A. Carpentiero, S. Cabrini, L. Businaro, and E. Di Fabrizio, Microelectron. Eng. 83, 1360 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. Kipp, M. Skibowski, R. L. Johnson, R. Berndt, R. Adelung, S. Harm, and R. Seemann, Nature 414, 184 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (3)

F. Giménez, W. D. Furlan, and J. A. Monsoriu, Opt. Commun. 277, 1 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jaroszewicz and A. Koodziejczyk, Opt. Commun. 102, 391 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, Opt. Commun. 112, 321 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Proc. SPIE (2)

W. Chao, E. H. Anderson, P. Fischer, and D.-H. Kim, Proc. SPIE 6883, 688309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Andersen, Proc. SPIE 6273, 62730K (2006).
[CrossRef]

Signal Process. (1)

A. T. Walden, Signal Process. 18, 341 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

T. Verma, S. Bilbao, and T. H. Y. Meng, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing (ICASSP-96) (IEEE, 1996), pp. 1351–1354.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the SPSs. (a) P = 1 . (b) P = 2 .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images at the focal spots image of the SZP and SPS: δ = 100 nm , f = 15 mm . (a) Charge 1 SZP. (b) Charge 1 SPS apodized by DPSW ( W = 0.01 ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Point spread functions of charge 1 SZP and charge 1 SPS apodized by different windows: δ = 100 nm , f = 15 mm .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Point-spread functions of SPSs apodized by DPSW ( W = 0.004 ) for different charge values: δ = 100 nm , f = 15 mm .

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

m = 0 N 1 sin ( 2 π W ( n m ) ) π ( n m ) υ m 0 ( N , W ) = χ 0 ( N , W ) υ n 0 ( N , W ) , N = ( d w ) 2 λ f 4 δ 2 , n = 0 , 1 , , N 1 ,
m = 0 N 1 ( υ n 0 ( N , W ) ) 2 = 1.
P θ = ( n + 0.5 ) π + π r 2 λ f ( n = 0 , 1 ) ,

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