Abstract

We present rapid imaging of fluorescent samples using spectral encoding (SE). A near-IR wavelength-swept source in used to preserve the SE of the position, despite Stokes shifts. To validate this approach, we imaged fluorescent PbS quantum dot solutions at concentrations down to 0.5±0.1μmol/L. This simple configuration allowed acquisition rates of up to 9920 lines of 1024 pixels per second to create high-resolution images. This spectrally encoded setup could be easily miniaturized for endoscopy, thus combining high-resolution fluorescence with confocal reflectance imaging at unmatched acquisition speed.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2007 (3)

D. Yelin, C. Boudoux, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Opt. Lett. 32, 1102 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Hyun, H. Chen, D. A. Rey, F. W. Wise, and C. A. Batt, J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 5726 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sun, M. Q. Zhu, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, and R. A. Drezek, Int. J. Nanomed. 2, 235 (2007).

2006 (2)

A. Hoffman, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 38, 1275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

Alonzo, C. Amadeo

Batt, C. A.

B. R. Hyun, H. Chen, D. A. Rey, F. W. Wise, and C. A. Batt, J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 5726 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

Capewell, D.

Chen, H.

B. R. Hyun, H. Chen, D. A. Rey, F. W. Wise, and C. A. Batt, J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 5726 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drezek, R. A.

J. Sun, M. Q. Zhu, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, and R. A. Drezek, Int. J. Nanomed. 2, 235 (2007).

Fu, K.

J. Sun, M. Q. Zhu, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, and R. A. Drezek, Int. J. Nanomed. 2, 235 (2007).

Galle, P. R.

A. Hoffman, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 38, 1275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goda, K.

Goetz, M.

A. Hoffman, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 38, 1275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, A.

A. Hoffman, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 38, 1275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyun, B. R.

B. R. Hyun, H. Chen, D. A. Rey, F. W. Wise, and C. A. Batt, J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 5726 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iftimia, N. V.

Jalali, B.

Kang, J. W.

Kiesslich, R.

A. Hoffman, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 38, 1275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

Lewinski, N.

J. Sun, M. Q. Zhu, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, and R. A. Drezek, Int. J. Nanomed. 2, 235 (2007).

Motz, J. T.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Motz, D. Yelin, B. J. Vakoc, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Opt. Lett. 30, 2760 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

A. Hoffman, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 38, 1275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, W. Y.

Park, H.

Rey, D. A.

B. R. Hyun, H. Chen, D. A. Rey, F. W. Wise, and C. A. Batt, J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 5726 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rizvi, I.

D. Yelin, I. Rizvi, W. M. White, J. T. Motz, T. Hasan, B. E. Bouma, and G. J. Tearney, Nature 443, 765 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shishkov, M.

Sun, J.

J. Sun, M. Q. Zhu, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, and R. A. Drezek, Int. J. Nanomed. 2, 235 (2007).

Tearney, G. J.

Tsia, K. K.

Vakoc, B. J.

Vieth, M.

A. Hoffman, M. Goetz, M. Vieth, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, and R. Kiesslich, Endoscopy 38, 1275 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

White, W. M.

Wise, F. W.

B. R. Hyun, H. Chen, D. A. Rey, F. W. Wise, and C. A. Batt, J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 5726 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yelin, D.

Yun, S. H.

Zhu, M. Q.

J. Sun, M. Q. Zhu, K. Fu, N. Lewinski, and R. A. Drezek, Int. J. Nanomed. 2, 235 (2007).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Swept-source spectrally encoded fluorescence imaging setup: SS, wavelength-swept source; C, circulator; CL, collimation lens; GR, grating; DM, dichroic mirror; OL, objective lens; LF, long-wavelength-pass filter; D1, fiber-coupled InGaAs photodiode; D2, large area InGaAs photodiode. The telecentric telescope between the grating and the dichroic mirror is not shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images ( 22 mm × 0.6 mm ) of a PC block with 1 mm diameter drilled wells. From left to right, the wells are filled with air, toluene, and solutions of quantum dots solubilized in toluene with decreasing concentrations: 11.7 μ mol / L , 4.5 ± 0.5 μ mol / L , 1.55 ± 0.25 μ mol / L , and 0.5 ± 0.1 μ mol / L . (a) Schematic of the sample. (b) Confocal reflectance image (linear look-up table shown on the right). The arrow points at strong reflectance signal from the large air–PC refractive index mismatch. (c) Fluorescence image (logarithmic look-up table shown on the right). (d) Transverse intensity profiles (bottom curve, fluorescence; top curve, confocal reflectance).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Fluorescence signal intensity as a function of quantum dot concentration. Solid line, linear fit ( R 2 = 0.995 ). (b) Normalized reflectance (black curve) and fluorescence [gray (red) curve] spectrally encoded signals collected from diffuse and fluorescent samples; (dashed blue curve) normalized quantum dot absorption cross section.

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