Abstract

Reported is femtosecond laser direct patterning of sensing materials toward flexible integration of micronanosensors (FIMS), meaning the capability to fabricate multiple functional sensors of smaller size on a nonflat surface of a substrate that is not limited to silicon. As a representative example, a photosensitive SnO2 colloidal solution (sol) was developed, from which complex micronanostructures were written via a two-photon absorption process. After thermal decomposition of organic components, the patterned SnO2 microsensors responded to relative humidity (RH) with a variation range of 5 orders of magnitude. FIMS would open a new door for miniaturization of micronanosensors expected in intelligent microsystems.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, L.-G. Niu, J.-N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H.-B. Sun, Lab. Chip. 9, 2391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, H. Xia, B.-B. Xu, L.-G. Niu, D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 34, 581 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Song, Q. Qi, T. Zhang, and C. Wang, Sens. Actuators. B 138, 368 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Q. Qi, T. Zhang, Q. Yu, R. Wang, Y. Zeng, L. Liu, and H. B. Yang, Sens. Actuators. B 133, 638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Q. Kuang, C. S. Lao, Z. L. Wang, Z. X. Xie, and L. S. Zheng, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 6070 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Passinger, M. S. M. Saifullah, C. Reinhardt, K. R. V. Subramanian, B. N. Chichkov, and M. E. Welland, Adv. Mater. 19, 1218 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Li, G. Zhao, W. Zhang, and Y. Chen, Surf. Interface Anal. 38, 1328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

Y.-S. Lee, K.-D. Song, J.-S. Huh, W.-Y. Chung, and D.-D. Lee, Sens. Actuators. B 108, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Graf, D. Barrettino, S. Taschini, C. Hagleitner, A. Hierlemann, and H. Baltes, Anal. Chem. 76, 4437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. Hierlemann, O. Brand, C. Hagleitner, and H. Baltes, Proc. IEEE. 91, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, G. Zhao, and Z. Chen, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 99, 168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

I. Simon, N. Bârsan, M. Bauer, and U. Weimar, Sens. Actuators. B 73, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1994

N. Tohge, K. Shinmou, and T. Minami, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 2, 581 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baltes, H.

M. Graf, D. Barrettino, S. Taschini, C. Hagleitner, A. Hierlemann, and H. Baltes, Anal. Chem. 76, 4437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hierlemann, O. Brand, C. Hagleitner, and H. Baltes, Proc. IEEE. 91, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barrettino, D.

M. Graf, D. Barrettino, S. Taschini, C. Hagleitner, A. Hierlemann, and H. Baltes, Anal. Chem. 76, 4437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bârsan, N.

I. Simon, N. Bârsan, M. Bauer, and U. Weimar, Sens. Actuators. B 73, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, M.

I. Simon, N. Bârsan, M. Bauer, and U. Weimar, Sens. Actuators. B 73, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brand, O.

A. Hierlemann, O. Brand, C. Hagleitner, and H. Baltes, Proc. IEEE. 91, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.-D.

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, L.-G. Niu, J.-N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H.-B. Sun, Lab. Chip. 9, 2391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, H. Xia, B.-B. Xu, L.-G. Niu, D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 34, 581 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Y. Li, G. Zhao, W. Zhang, and Y. Chen, Surf. Interface Anal. 38, 1328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

W. Zhang, G. Zhao, and Z. Chen, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 99, 168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

S. Passinger, M. S. M. Saifullah, C. Reinhardt, K. R. V. Subramanian, B. N. Chichkov, and M. E. Welland, Adv. Mater. 19, 1218 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chung, W.-Y.

Y.-S. Lee, K.-D. Song, J.-S. Huh, W.-Y. Chung, and D.-D. Lee, Sens. Actuators. B 108, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cox, P. A.

V. A. Henrich and P. A. Cox, The Surface Science of Metal Oxides (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994).

Graf, M.

M. Graf, D. Barrettino, S. Taschini, C. Hagleitner, A. Hierlemann, and H. Baltes, Anal. Chem. 76, 4437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagleitner, C.

M. Graf, D. Barrettino, S. Taschini, C. Hagleitner, A. Hierlemann, and H. Baltes, Anal. Chem. 76, 4437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hierlemann, O. Brand, C. Hagleitner, and H. Baltes, Proc. IEEE. 91, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Henrich, V. A.

V. A. Henrich and P. A. Cox, The Surface Science of Metal Oxides (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994).

Hierlemann, A.

M. Graf, D. Barrettino, S. Taschini, C. Hagleitner, A. Hierlemann, and H. Baltes, Anal. Chem. 76, 4437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hierlemann, O. Brand, C. Hagleitner, and H. Baltes, Proc. IEEE. 91, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huh, J.-S.

Y.-S. Lee, K.-D. Song, J.-S. Huh, W.-Y. Chung, and D.-D. Lee, Sens. Actuators. B 108, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, Q.

Q. Kuang, C. S. Lao, Z. L. Wang, Z. X. Xie, and L. S. Zheng, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 6070 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lao, C. S.

Q. Kuang, C. S. Lao, Z. L. Wang, Z. X. Xie, and L. S. Zheng, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 6070 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, D.-D.

Y.-S. Lee, K.-D. Song, J.-S. Huh, W.-Y. Chung, and D.-D. Lee, Sens. Actuators. B 108, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Lee, K.-D. Song, J.-S. Huh, W.-Y. Chung, and D.-D. Lee, Sens. Actuators. B 108, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, G. Zhao, W. Zhang, and Y. Chen, Surf. Interface Anal. 38, 1328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

Q. Qi, T. Zhang, Q. Yu, R. Wang, Y. Zeng, L. Liu, and H. B. Yang, Sens. Actuators. B 133, 638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.-W.

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.-G.

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Minami, T.

N. Tohge, K. Shinmou, and T. Minami, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 2, 581 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Niu, L.-G.

J. Wang, H. Xia, B.-B. Xu, L.-G. Niu, D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 34, 581 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, L.-G. Niu, J.-N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H.-B. Sun, Lab. Chip. 9, 2391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Passinger, S.

S. Passinger, M. S. M. Saifullah, C. Reinhardt, K. R. V. Subramanian, B. N. Chichkov, and M. E. Welland, Adv. Mater. 19, 1218 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qi, Q.

X. Song, Q. Qi, T. Zhang, and C. Wang, Sens. Actuators. B 138, 368 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Qi, T. Zhang, Q. Yu, R. Wang, Y. Zeng, L. Liu, and H. B. Yang, Sens. Actuators. B 133, 638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, C.

S. Passinger, M. S. M. Saifullah, C. Reinhardt, K. R. V. Subramanian, B. N. Chichkov, and M. E. Welland, Adv. Mater. 19, 1218 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Saifullah, M. S. M.

S. Passinger, M. S. M. Saifullah, C. Reinhardt, K. R. V. Subramanian, B. N. Chichkov, and M. E. Welland, Adv. Mater. 19, 1218 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shinmou, K.

N. Tohge, K. Shinmou, and T. Minami, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 2, 581 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Simon, I.

I. Simon, N. Bârsan, M. Bauer, and U. Weimar, Sens. Actuators. B 73, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.-D.

Y.-S. Lee, K.-D. Song, J.-S. Huh, W.-Y. Chung, and D.-D. Lee, Sens. Actuators. B 108, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, X.

X. Song, Q. Qi, T. Zhang, and C. Wang, Sens. Actuators. B 138, 368 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Subramanian, K. R. V.

S. Passinger, M. S. M. Saifullah, C. Reinhardt, K. R. V. Subramanian, B. N. Chichkov, and M. E. Welland, Adv. Mater. 19, 1218 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.-B.

D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, L.-G. Niu, J.-N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H.-B. Sun, Lab. Chip. 9, 2391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, H. Xia, B.-B. Xu, L.-G. Niu, D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 34, 581 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taschini, S.

M. Graf, D. Barrettino, S. Taschini, C. Hagleitner, A. Hierlemann, and H. Baltes, Anal. Chem. 76, 4437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tohge, N.

N. Tohge, K. Shinmou, and T. Minami, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 2, 581 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

X. Song, Q. Qi, T. Zhang, and C. Wang, Sens. Actuators. B 138, 368 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.-F.

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, H. Xia, B.-B. Xu, L.-G. Niu, D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 34, 581 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, L.-G. Niu, J.-N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H.-B. Sun, Lab. Chip. 9, 2391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.-N.

D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, L.-G. Niu, J.-N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H.-B. Sun, Lab. Chip. 9, 2391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, R.

D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, L.-G. Niu, J.-N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H.-B. Sun, Lab. Chip. 9, 2391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Qi, T. Zhang, Q. Yu, R. Wang, Y. Zeng, L. Liu, and H. B. Yang, Sens. Actuators. B 133, 638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. L.

Q. Kuang, C. S. Lao, Z. L. Wang, Z. X. Xie, and L. S. Zheng, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 6070 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weimar, U.

I. Simon, N. Bârsan, M. Bauer, and U. Weimar, Sens. Actuators. B 73, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Welland, M. E.

S. Passinger, M. S. M. Saifullah, C. Reinhardt, K. R. V. Subramanian, B. N. Chichkov, and M. E. Welland, Adv. Mater. 19, 1218 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

J. Wang, H. Xia, B.-B. Xu, L.-G. Niu, D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 34, 581 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, L.-G. Niu, J.-N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H.-B. Sun, Lab. Chip. 9, 2391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, H.

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, L.-G. Niu, J.-N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H.-B. Sun, Lab. Chip. 9, 2391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, H. Xia, B.-B. Xu, L.-G. Niu, D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, and H.-B. Sun, Opt. Lett. 34, 581 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, Z. X.

Q. Kuang, C. S. Lao, Z. L. Wang, Z. X. Xie, and L. S. Zheng, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 6070 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, B.-B.

Yang, H. B.

Q. Qi, T. Zhang, Q. Yu, R. Wang, Y. Zeng, L. Liu, and H. B. Yang, Sens. Actuators. B 133, 638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Q.

Q. Qi, T. Zhang, Q. Yu, R. Wang, Y. Zeng, L. Liu, and H. B. Yang, Sens. Actuators. B 133, 638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Y.

Q. Qi, T. Zhang, Q. Yu, R. Wang, Y. Zeng, L. Liu, and H. B. Yang, Sens. Actuators. B 133, 638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T.

X. Song, Q. Qi, T. Zhang, and C. Wang, Sens. Actuators. B 138, 368 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Qi, T. Zhang, Q. Yu, R. Wang, Y. Zeng, L. Liu, and H. B. Yang, Sens. Actuators. B 133, 638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Y. Li, G. Zhao, W. Zhang, and Y. Chen, Surf. Interface Anal. 38, 1328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, G. Zhao, and Z. Chen, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 99, 168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.-Y.

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, G.

Y. Li, G. Zhao, W. Zhang, and Y. Chen, Surf. Interface Anal. 38, 1328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, G. Zhao, and Z. Chen, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 99, 168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, L. S.

Q. Kuang, C. S. Lao, Z. L. Wang, Z. X. Xie, and L. S. Zheng, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 6070 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

S. Passinger, M. S. M. Saifullah, C. Reinhardt, K. R. V. Subramanian, B. N. Chichkov, and M. E. Welland, Adv. Mater. 19, 1218 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

M. Graf, D. Barrettino, S. Taschini, C. Hagleitner, A. Hierlemann, and H. Baltes, Anal. Chem. 76, 4437 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Xia, W.-Y. Zhang, F.-F. Wang, D. Wu, X.-W. Liu, L. Chen, Q.-D. Chen, Y.-G. Ma, and H.-B. Sun, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 083118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

Q. Kuang, C. S. Lao, Z. L. Wang, Z. X. Xie, and L. S. Zheng, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 6070 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol.

N. Tohge, K. Shinmou, and T. Minami, J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol. 2, 581 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lab. Chip.

D. Wu, Q.-D. Chen, L.-G. Niu, J.-N. Wang, J. Wang, R. Wang, H. Xia, and H.-B. Sun, Lab. Chip. 9, 2391 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B

W. Zhang, G. Zhao, and Z. Chen, Mater. Sci. Eng. B 99, 168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE.

A. Hierlemann, O. Brand, C. Hagleitner, and H. Baltes, Proc. IEEE. 91, 839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators. B

X. Song, Q. Qi, T. Zhang, and C. Wang, Sens. Actuators. B 138, 368 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Lee, K.-D. Song, J.-S. Huh, W.-Y. Chung, and D.-D. Lee, Sens. Actuators. B 108, 292 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Simon, N. Bârsan, M. Bauer, and U. Weimar, Sens. Actuators. B 73, 1 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Q. Qi, T. Zhang, Q. Yu, R. Wang, Y. Zeng, L. Liu, and H. B. Yang, Sens. Actuators. B 133, 638 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Interface Anal.

Y. Li, G. Zhao, W. Zhang, and Y. Chen, Surf. Interface Anal. 38, 1328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

T.Seiyama, ed., Chemical Sensor Technology (Kodansha, 1989), Vol. 2, pp. 133–149.

V. A. Henrich and P. A. Cox, The Surface Science of Metal Oxides (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Fabrication process of micronanostructured Sn O 2 . (a) Synthetic equation of photosensitive Sn O 2 sol. (b) Optical absorption spectra of as-prepared Sn O 2 gels before and after UV irradiation. Inset, scheme for femtosecond laser processing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of 2D Sn O 2 micronanostructures. Double line loops (a) before calcination, and (b) after calcination. Insets, magnified images. (c) Badge of Jilin University before calcination and (d) after calcination.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of 3D Sn O 2 cage structures. (a) 3D cage before calcination and (b) after calcination. Insets, magnified images. (c) Wide-angle x-ray diffraction curves of the Sn O 2 after calcination.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Scanning electron microscopy image of a Sn O 2 nanowire between two Au electrodes. (b) I–V curve of the Sn O 2 nanowire. (c) Dependence of resistance on RH of the Sn O 2 nanowire.

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