Abstract

By irradiating spherical metal nanoparticles embedded in glass with several hundred ultrashort laser pulses at peak intensities of 0.21.5TWcm2, dichroic microstructures can be written in these nanocomposite materials. The underlying mechanism is transformation of the nanoparticles to prolate shapes. Using a single wavelength, the maximum aspect ratio achievable with this process is limited by partial destruction of particles. Here we show that this limitation can be overcome by simultaneous irradiation with different wavelengths. In particular, adding a relatively weak intensity at 800nm to the main irradiation at 532nm increases the maximum aspect ratio of Ag nanoparticles and the resulting separation between polarized surface plasmon bands dramatically. These effects are explained by the efficiency of electric field enhancement in the vicinity of nanoparticles, which influences the directed photoionization needed for particle shape transformation.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. V. M. Shalaev and S. Kawata, Nanophotonics with Surface Plasmons (Elsevier, 2007).
  2. M. L. Brongersma and P. G. Kik, Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics (Springer, 2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Gonella and P. Mazzoldi, Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology (Academic, 2000).
  4. U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer, 1995).
  5. V. M. Shalaev, Optical Properties of Nanostructured Random Media (Springer, 2001).
  6. K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Stietz, Appl. Phys. A 72, 381 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Shimotsuma, T. Yuasa, H. Homma, M. Sakakura, A. Nakao, K. Miura, K. Hirao, M. Kawasaki, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, Chem. Mater. 19, 1206 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  15. A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, J. Opt. A 11, 065001 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, Opt. Lett. 32, 3215 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. W. H. Yang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. van Duyne, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 869 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Stalmashonak, H. Graener, and G. Seifert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 193111 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. ComSol Multiphysics, Version 3.5a., 2009www.comsol.com.

2009 (4)

A. Stalmashonak, A. Podlipensky, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, Appl. Phys. B 94, 459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, J. Opt. A 11, 065001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Unal, A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, Phys. Rev. B 79, 115411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Stalmashonak, H. Graener, and G. Seifert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 193111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, Opt. Lett. 32, 3215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, T. Yuasa, H. Homma, M. Sakakura, A. Nakao, K. Miura, K. Hirao, M. Kawasaki, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, Chem. Mater. 19, 1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. L. Stepanov and V. N. Popok, Surf. Coat. Technol. 185, 30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, Nature 415, 617 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

R. Jin, Y. W. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, Science 294, 1901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Stietz, Appl. Phys. A 72, 381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Wenzel, J. Bosbach, A. Goldmann, F. Stietz, and F. Träger, Appl. Phys. B 69, 513 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, Appl. Phys. B 66, 517 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

W. H. Yang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. van Duyne, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. J. Zeman and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bosbach, J.

T. Wenzel, J. Bosbach, A. Goldmann, F. Stietz, and F. Träger, Appl. Phys. B 69, 513 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

M. L. Brongersma and P. G. Kik, Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics (Springer, 2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Y. W.

R. Jin, Y. W. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, Science 294, 1901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coronado, E.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Garrido, F.

D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, Appl. Phys. B 66, 517 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldmann, A.

T. Wenzel, J. Bosbach, A. Goldmann, F. Stietz, and F. Träger, Appl. Phys. B 69, 513 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gonella, F.

D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, Appl. Phys. B 66, 517 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonella and P. Mazzoldi, Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology (Academic, 2000).

Graener, H.

A. Stalmashonak, H. Graener, and G. Seifert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 193111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Stalmashonak, A. Podlipensky, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, Appl. Phys. B 94, 459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, J. Opt. A 11, 065001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Unal, A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, Phys. Rev. B 79, 115411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, Opt. Lett. 32, 3215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gudiksen, M. S.

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, Nature 415, 617 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haglund, R. F.

D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, Appl. Phys. B 66, 517 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, T. Yuasa, H. Homma, M. Sakakura, A. Nakao, K. Miura, K. Hirao, M. Kawasaki, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, Chem. Mater. 19, 1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Homma, H.

Y. Shimotsuma, T. Yuasa, H. Homma, M. Sakakura, A. Nakao, K. Miura, K. Hirao, M. Kawasaki, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, Chem. Mater. 19, 1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jin, R.

R. Jin, Y. W. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, Science 294, 1901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawasaki, M.

Y. Shimotsuma, T. Yuasa, H. Homma, M. Sakakura, A. Nakao, K. Miura, K. Hirao, M. Kawasaki, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, Chem. Mater. 19, 1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

V. M. Shalaev and S. Kawata, Nanophotonics with Surface Plasmons (Elsevier, 2007).

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, T. Yuasa, H. Homma, M. Sakakura, A. Nakao, K. Miura, K. Hirao, M. Kawasaki, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, Chem. Mater. 19, 1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, K. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Jin, Y. W. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, Science 294, 1901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kik, P. G.

M. L. Brongersma and P. G. Kik, Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics (Springer, 2007).
[CrossRef]

Kreibig, U.

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer, 1995).

Lauhon, L. J.

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, Nature 415, 617 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lieber, C. M.

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, Nature 415, 617 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazzoldi, P.

F. Gonella and P. Mazzoldi, Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology (Academic, 2000).

Mirkin, C. A.

R. Jin, Y. W. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, Science 294, 1901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, T. Yuasa, H. Homma, M. Sakakura, A. Nakao, K. Miura, K. Hirao, M. Kawasaki, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, Chem. Mater. 19, 1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakao, A.

Y. Shimotsuma, T. Yuasa, H. Homma, M. Sakakura, A. Nakao, K. Miura, K. Hirao, M. Kawasaki, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, Chem. Mater. 19, 1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Osborne, D. H.

D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, Appl. Phys. B 66, 517 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Podlipensky, A.

A. Stalmashonak, A. Podlipensky, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, Appl. Phys. B 94, 459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Popok, V. N.

A. L. Stepanov and V. N. Popok, Surf. Coat. Technol. 185, 30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, T. Yuasa, H. Homma, M. Sakakura, A. Nakao, K. Miura, K. Hirao, M. Kawasaki, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, Chem. Mater. 19, 1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakakura, M.

Y. Shimotsuma, T. Yuasa, H. Homma, M. Sakakura, A. Nakao, K. Miura, K. Hirao, M. Kawasaki, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, Chem. Mater. 19, 1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schatz, G. C.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Jin, Y. W. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, Science 294, 1901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Yang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. van Duyne, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Zeman and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, G.

A. Stalmashonak, H. Graener, and G. Seifert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 193111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Stalmashonak, A. Podlipensky, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, Appl. Phys. B 94, 459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Unal, A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, Phys. Rev. B 79, 115411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, J. Opt. A 11, 065001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, Opt. Lett. 32, 3215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

V. M. Shalaev, Optical Properties of Nanostructured Random Media (Springer, 2001).

V. M. Shalaev and S. Kawata, Nanophotonics with Surface Plasmons (Elsevier, 2007).

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, T. Yuasa, H. Homma, M. Sakakura, A. Nakao, K. Miura, K. Hirao, M. Kawasaki, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, Chem. Mater. 19, 1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. C.

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, Nature 415, 617 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stalmashonak, A.

A. Stalmashonak, A. Podlipensky, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, Appl. Phys. B 94, 459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Stalmashonak, H. Graener, and G. Seifert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 193111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Unal, A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, Phys. Rev. B 79, 115411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, J. Opt. A 11, 065001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, Opt. Lett. 32, 3215 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanov, A. L.

A. L. Stepanov and V. N. Popok, Surf. Coat. Technol. 185, 30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stietz, F.

F. Stietz, Appl. Phys. A 72, 381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Wenzel, J. Bosbach, A. Goldmann, F. Stietz, and F. Träger, Appl. Phys. B 69, 513 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Träger, F.

T. Wenzel, J. Bosbach, A. Goldmann, F. Stietz, and F. Träger, Appl. Phys. B 69, 513 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Unal, A. A.

A. A. Unal, A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, Phys. Rev. B 79, 115411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Duyne, R. P.

W. H. Yang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. van Duyne, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, M.

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer, 1995).

Wang, J.

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, Nature 415, 617 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wenzel, T.

T. Wenzel, J. Bosbach, A. Goldmann, F. Stietz, and F. Träger, Appl. Phys. B 69, 513 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, W. H.

W. H. Yang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. van Duyne, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yuasa, T.

Y. Shimotsuma, T. Yuasa, H. Homma, M. Sakakura, A. Nakao, K. Miura, K. Hirao, M. Kawasaki, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, Chem. Mater. 19, 1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeman, E. J.

E. J. Zeman and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. L.

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J. G.

R. Jin, Y. W. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, Science 294, 1901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

F. Stietz, Appl. Phys. A 72, 381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

D. H. Osborne, R. F. Haglund, F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, Appl. Phys. B 66, 517 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Stalmashonak, A. Podlipensky, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, Appl. Phys. B 94, 459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Wenzel, J. Bosbach, A. Goldmann, F. Stietz, and F. Träger, Appl. Phys. B 69, 513 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Stalmashonak, H. Graener, and G. Seifert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 193111 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, T. Yuasa, H. Homma, M. Sakakura, A. Nakao, K. Miura, K. Hirao, M. Kawasaki, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, Chem. Mater. 19, 1206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

W. H. Yang, G. C. Schatz, and R. P. van Duyne, J. Chem. Phys. 103, 869 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, J. Opt. A 11, 065001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

E. J. Zeman and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. 91, 634 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

K. L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L. L. Zhao, and G. C. Schatz, J. Phys. Chem. B 107, 668 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. S. Gudiksen, L. J. Lauhon, J. Wang, D. C. Smith, and C. M. Lieber, Nature 415, 617 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. A. Unal, A. Stalmashonak, G. Seifert, and H. Graener, Phys. Rev. B 79, 115411 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. Jin, Y. W. Cao, C. A. Mirkin, K. L. Kelly, G. C. Schatz, and J. G. Zheng, Science 294, 1901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Surf. Coat. Technol. (1)

A. L. Stepanov and V. N. Popok, Surf. Coat. Technol. 185, 30 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

V. M. Shalaev and S. Kawata, Nanophotonics with Surface Plasmons (Elsevier, 2007).

M. L. Brongersma and P. G. Kik, Surface Plasmon Nanophotonics (Springer, 2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonella and P. Mazzoldi, Handbook of Nanostructured Materials and Nanotechnology (Academic, 2000).

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer, 1995).

V. M. Shalaev, Optical Properties of Nanostructured Random Media (Springer, 2001).

ComSol Multiphysics, Version 3.5a., 2009www.comsol.com.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Polarized extinction spectra of original and irradiated samples with Ag nanoparticles. The peak intensity of the pulses at 532 nm was 1.3 TW cm 2 . (b) P-polarized extinction spectra of the sample with Ag nanoparticles irradiated simultaneously by the pulses at 532 and 800 nm .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength dependences of extinction and average enhancement of the normal electrical field on the particle surface ( F E , n ; see text) for (a) spherical ( r = 15 nm ) and (b) prolate ( a c = 2.4 , same volume) Ag particles in glass. The vertical arrows give the wavelengths of irradiation as a guide to the eye.

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