Abstract

The carrier-envelope-offset (CEO) frequency of pulses from a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator (OPO) was stabilized for 30 min without the need for f–2f self-referencing in either the OPO or its pump laser. Interference between the high-frequency modes of the pump supercontinuum and the modes of the non-phase-matched pump+signal sum-frequency-mixing pulses provided the beat signal used for locking. The 3dB bandwidth of the locked CEO-frequency was measured as 1.1kHz, and the cumulative phase error recorded over 1 s was 0.38rad, representing 1-order-of-magnitude improvement in comparison to previous results.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (4)

J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 3, 99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 3, 529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun and D. T. Reid, Opt. Lett. 34, 854 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cui, M. G. Zeitouny, N. Bhattacharya, S. A. van den Berg, H. P. Urbach, and J. J. M. Braat, Opt. Lett. 34, 1982 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (5)

J. H. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, Opt. Express 15, 4378 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Sun, B. J. S. Gale, and D. T. Reid, Opt. Lett. 32, 1414 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. McConnell, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

K. A. Tillman, R. R. J. Maier, D. T. Reid, and E. D. McNaghten, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. Ramsay, D. T. Reid, and K. Wilsher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

F. Ganikhanov, K. C. Burr, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 64 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 60, 241 (1995).

1989 (1)

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1728 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 3, 529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

Bhattacharya, N.

Braat, J. J. M.

Burr, K. C.

F. Ganikhanov, K. C. Burr, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 64 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Cui, M.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekorsy, T.

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 3, 529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S.

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Edelstein, D. C.

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1728 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Freegarde, T.

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 60, 241 (1995).

Gale, B. J. S.

Ganikhanov, F.

F. Ganikhanov, K. C. Burr, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 64 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gebs, R.

Gohle, C.

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gorodetsky, M. L.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 3, 529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guelachvili, G.

J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 3, 99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 60, 241 (1995).

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 3, 529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 3, 529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

Kolner, B. H.

Maier, R. R. J.

K. A. Tillman, R. R. J. Maier, D. T. Reid, and E. D. McNaghten, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mandon, J.

J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 3, 99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Matos, L.

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McConnell, G.

G. McConnell, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNaghten, E. D.

K. A. Tillman, R. R. J. Maier, D. T. Reid, and E. D. McNaghten, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mücke, O. D.

Mulder, T. D.

Picqué, N.

J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 3, 99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prevedelli, M.

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 60, 241 (1995).

Ramsay, E.

E. Ramsay, D. T. Reid, and K. Wilsher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reid, D. T.

Schliesser, A.

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scott, R. P.

Stein, B.

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, J.

Sun, J. H.

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. L.

F. Ganikhanov, K. C. Burr, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 64 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1728 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tillman, K. A.

K. A. Tillman, R. R. J. Maier, D. T. Reid, and E. D. McNaghten, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Torizuka, K.

Udem, T.

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Urbach, H. P.

van den Berg, S. A.

Wachman, E. S.

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1728 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wilsher, K.

E. Ramsay, D. T. Reid, and K. Wilsher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeitouny, M. G.

Appl. Phys. B (2)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, Appl. Phys. B 69, 327 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Prevedelli, T. Freegarde, and T. W. Hänsch, Appl. Phys. B 60, 241 (1995).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

D. C. Edelstein, E. S. Wachman, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1728 (1989).
[CrossRef]

F. Ganikhanov, K. C. Burr, and C. L. Tang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 64 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Tillman, R. R. J. Maier, D. T. Reid, and E. D. McNaghten, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 3366 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Ramsay, D. T. Reid, and K. Wilsher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

J. Mandon, G. Guelachvili, and N. Picqué, Nat. Photonics 3, 99 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Del’Haye, O. Arcizet, M. L. Gorodetsky, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, Nat. Photonics 3, 529 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

G. McConnell, Phys. Med. Biol. 52, 717 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. Gohle, B. Stein, A. Schliesser, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263902 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, Science 288, 635 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the optical layout: M, dielectric mirrors; GTI, Gires–Tournois interferometer mirror; OC, output couplers; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; PRM, partially reflecting mirror; PCF, photonic crystal fiber; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; IF, interference filter; PL, polarizer; APD, avalanche photodiode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Locked CEO frequency observed on an rf spectrum analyzer with a span of 20 kHz ( 200 kHz inset). The 3 dB bandwidth is 1.1 kHz measured with 1 kHz resolution. (b) In-loop measurement of the phase-noise PSD of the CEO frequency. The cumulative phase noise integrated up to 1 MHz is 0.38 rad ( 1  s observation time).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

RIN from the OPO and Ti:sapphire cavities when the CEO frequency of the signal was locked. The left axis shows frequency-dependent RIN relative to the carrier (logarithmic scale). The right axis is the cumulative standard deviation of the RIN data, calculated by normalizing the optical power to unity then evaluating the standard deviation over an interval from a given frequency to the Nyquist frequency. For the OPO signal output, the maximum cumulative standard deviation is equal to the root-mean-square fluctuations of the normalized OPO power over the 64  s measurement interval.

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