Abstract

The injection of squeezed light can be used to improve the sensitivity of an interferometer beyond the limit imposed by the zero-point fluctuation of the electromagnetic field. Here, we report on the realization of such a quantum-enhanced interferometer with a fiber-based Sagnac topology. Continuous wave squeezed states at 1550nm with a noise reduction of 6.4dB below shot noise were produced by type I optical parametric amplification and subsequently injected into the dark port of the interferometer. A reduction of the interferometer shot noise by 4.5dB was observed, and the enhancement of the signal-to-noise ratio for a phase modulation signal generated within the interferometer could be demonstrated. We achieved a 95% fiber transmission for the squeezed states, which suggests that corresponding fiber-based quantum metrology and communication systems are feasible.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Culshaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R1 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. Mortimore, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Blake, P. Tantaswadi, and R. de Carvalho, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 11, 116 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. López-Higuera, Handbook of Optical Fibre Sensing Technology (Wiley, 2002).
  5. R. Dong, J. Heersink, J. F. Corney, P. D. Drummond, U. L. Andersen, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Lett. 33, 116 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Elser, C. Wittmann, U. L. Andersen, O. Glockl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 92, 012108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. McKenzie, D. A. Shaddock, D. E. McClelland, B. C. Buchler, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 231102 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 211102 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Mehmet, S. Steinlechner, T. Eberle, H. Vahlbruch, A. Thüring, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Opt. Lett. 34, 1060 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M.-J. Li and D. Nolan, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1079 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

R. Dong, J. Heersink, J. F. Corney, P. D. Drummond, U. L. Andersen, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Lett. 33, 116 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-J. Li and D. Nolan, J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 1079 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

D. Elser, C. Wittmann, U. L. Andersen, O. Glockl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 92, 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

B. Culshaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

K. McKenzie, D. A. Shaddock, D. E. McClelland, B. C. Buchler, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 231102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. Blake, P. Tantaswadi, and R. de Carvalho, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 11, 116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. Mortimore, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Adhikari, R.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, U. L.

R. Dong, J. Heersink, J. F. Corney, P. D. Drummond, U. L. Andersen, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Lett. 33, 116 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Elser, C. Wittmann, U. L. Andersen, O. Glockl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 92, 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blake, J.

J. Blake, P. Tantaswadi, and R. de Carvalho, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 11, 116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Buchler, B. C.

K. McKenzie, D. A. Shaddock, D. E. McClelland, B. C. Buchler, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 231102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caves, C. M.

C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chelkowski, S.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corney, J. F.

Culshaw, B.

B. Culshaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Mehmet, S. Steinlechner, T. Eberle, H. Vahlbruch, A. Thüring, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Opt. Lett. 34, 1060 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Carvalho, R.

J. Blake, P. Tantaswadi, and R. de Carvalho, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 11, 116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dong, R.

Drummond, P. D.

Eberle, T.

Elser, D.

D. Elser, C. Wittmann, U. L. Andersen, O. Glockl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 92, 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franzen, A.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glockl, O.

D. Elser, C. Wittmann, U. L. Andersen, O. Glockl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 92, 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goda, K.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goßler, S.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grangier, P.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hage, B.

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heersink, J.

Kimble, H. J.

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, P. K.

K. McKenzie, D. A. Shaddock, D. E. McClelland, B. C. Buchler, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 231102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

LaPorta, A.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lastzka, N.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leuchs, G.

R. Dong, J. Heersink, J. F. Corney, P. D. Drummond, U. L. Andersen, and G. Leuchs, Opt. Lett. 33, 116 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Elser, C. Wittmann, U. L. Andersen, O. Glockl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 92, 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.-J.

López-Higuera, J. M.

J. M. López-Higuera, Handbook of Optical Fibre Sensing Technology (Wiley, 2002).

Lorenz, S.

D. Elser, C. Wittmann, U. L. Andersen, O. Glockl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 92, 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marquardt, C.

D. Elser, C. Wittmann, U. L. Andersen, O. Glockl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 92, 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mavalvala, N.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, D. E.

K. McKenzie, D. A. Shaddock, D. E. McClelland, B. C. Buchler, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 231102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKenzie, K.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. McKenzie, D. A. Shaddock, D. E. McClelland, B. C. Buchler, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 231102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehmet, M.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Mehmet, S. Steinlechner, T. Eberle, H. Vahlbruch, A. Thüring, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Opt. Lett. 34, 1060 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikhailov, E. E.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miyakawa, O.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mortimore, D.

D. Mortimore, J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1217 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nolan, D.

Saraf, S.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, R.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Mehmet, S. Steinlechner, T. Eberle, H. Vahlbruch, A. Thüring, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Opt. Lett. 34, 1060 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaddock, D. A.

K. McKenzie, D. A. Shaddock, D. E. McClelland, B. C. Buchler, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 231102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slusher, R. E.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinlechner, S.

Tantaswadi, P.

J. Blake, P. Tantaswadi, and R. de Carvalho, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 11, 116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thüring, A.

Vahlbruch, H.

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Mehmet, S. Steinlechner, T. Eberle, H. Vahlbruch, A. Thüring, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Opt. Lett. 34, 1060 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vass, S.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ward, R.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weinstein, A. J.

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wittmann, C.

D. Elser, C. Wittmann, U. L. Andersen, O. Glockl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 92, 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.-A.

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, M.

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yurke, B.

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. (1)

J. Blake, P. Tantaswadi, and R. de Carvalho, IEEE Trans. Power Deliv. 11, 116 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. (1)

D. Elser, C. Wittmann, U. L. Andersen, O. Glockl, S. Lorenz, C. Marquardt, and G. Leuchs, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 92, 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

B. Culshaw, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, R1 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

K. Goda, O. Miyakawa, E. E. Mikhailov, S. Saraf, R. Adhikari, K. McKenzie, R. Ward, S. Vass, A. J. Weinstein, and N. Mavalvala, Nat. Phys. 4, 472 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Mehmet, H. Vahlbruch, N. Lastzka, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. A 81, 013814 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. D (1)

C. M. Caves, Phys. Rev. D 23, 1693 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

M. Xiao, L.-A. Wu, and H. J. Kimble, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 278 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Grangier, R. E. Slusher, B. Yurke, and A. LaPorta, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2153 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. McKenzie, D. A. Shaddock, D. E. McClelland, B. C. Buchler, and P. K. Lam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 231102 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 211102 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vahlbruch, M. Mehmet, S. Chelkowski, B. Hage, A. Franzen, N. Lastzka, S. Goßler, K. Danzmann, and R. Schnabel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 033602 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. M. López-Higuera, Handbook of Optical Fibre Sensing Technology (Wiley, 2002).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the optical setup. The experiment is driven by a fiber laser emitting 1550 nm radiation. SHG, second-harmonic generator producing the 775 nm pump field; FCs, filter cavities for spatial mode cleaning; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; DBS, dichroic beam splitter; OPA, optical parametric amplifier generating squeezed states; LO, local oscillator beam of the balanced homodyne detector, BHD. For characterization the squeezed field was sent via path 1 onto BHD1. To quantum enhance the Sagnac interferometer the squeezing was sent along path 2 and was injected into the dark signal port by using a Faraday rotator, half-wave plate, and a polarizing beam splitter (PBS). EOM, electro-optic modulator to generate a phase modulation signal inside the Sagnac interferometer. The interferometer signal and the squeezed quantum noise were detected with BHD2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Noise powers of the squeezed states initially emitted by the OPA at a sideband frequency of 5 MHz normalized to the shot-noise level. Shot-noise, squeezed noise, and antisqueezed noise were averaged twice. X ( θ ) was recorded by linearly sweeping the LO phase. All traces were recorded with a resolution bandwidth of 300 kHz and a video bandwidth of 300 Hz ; the detector dark noise ( 20 dB below shot noise) was not subtracted.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sagnac interferometer output signal as recorded by the balanced homodyne detector. A 6 MHz phase modulation was measured without [trace (a)] and with [trace (b)] squeezed light input, which yielded a reduction of the interferometer shot noise by 4.5 dB .

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