Abstract

We report an experimental and theoretical study of the optical properties of two-dimensional arrays of aluminum nanoparticle in-tandem pairs. Plasmon resonances and effective optical constants of these structures are investigated, and strong magnetic response as well as negative permeability is observed down to 400nm wavelength. Theoretical calculations based on the finite-difference time-domain method are performed for various particle dimensions and lattice parameters, and are found to be in good agreement with the experimental findings. The results show that metamaterials operating across the whole visible wavelength range are feasible.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2009

A. Mohammadi, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6, 2024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. F. Koenderink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Merlin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 1693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, Opt. Lett. 34, 3478 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

2006

2005

2002

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4721 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abrishamian, M. S.

Agio, M.

Aussenegg, F. R.

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4721 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

Cai, W.

Chettiar, U. K.

Chowdhury, M. H.

K. Ray, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, Anal. Chem. 79, 6480 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christ, A.

Chu, J.

Z. Huang, J. Xue, Y. Hou, J. Chu, and D. H. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 74, 193105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

de Silva, V. C.

Ditlbacher, H.

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4721 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dmitriev, A.

Dolling, G.

Drachev, V. P.

Ekinci, Y.

Y. Ekinci, A. Christ, M. Agio, O. J. F. Martin, H. H. Solak, and J. F. Löffler, Opt. Express 16, 13287 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, and J. F. Löffler, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, and C. David, Opt. Lett. 32, 172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Solak, Y. Ekinci, P. Käser, and S. Park, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frimmer, M.

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. F. Koenderink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gertsman, V. Y.

V. Y. Gertsman and Q. S. Kwok, Microsc. Microanal. 11, 410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gräbeldinger, H.

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Granpayeh, N.

Guo, H.

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hou, Y.

Z. Huang, J. Xue, Y. Hou, J. Chu, and D. H. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 74, 193105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, J. Xue, Y. Hou, J. Chu, and D. H. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 74, 193105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, S.

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Käll, M.

Käser, P.

H. H. Solak, Y. Ekinci, P. Käser, and S. Park, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Koenderink, A. F.

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. F. Koenderink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4721 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwok, Q. S.

V. Y. Gertsman and Q. S. Kwok, Microsc. Microanal. 11, 410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lakowicz, J. R.

K. Ray, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, Anal. Chem. 79, 6480 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamprecht, B.

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4721 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lechner, R. T.

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4721 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitner, A.

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4721 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

Liu, N.

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, J. F.

Markoš, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

Merlin, R.

R. Merlin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 1693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mohammadi, A.

A. Mohammadi, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6, 2024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pakizeh, T.

Park, S.

H. H. Solak, Y. Ekinci, P. Käser, and S. Park, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ray, K.

K. Ray, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, Anal. Chem. 79, 6480 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandoghdar, V.

A. Mohammadi, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6, 2024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schider, G.

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4721 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, H.

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sersic, I.

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. F. Koenderink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solak, H. H.

Y. Ekinci, A. Christ, M. Agio, O. J. F. Martin, H. H. Solak, and J. F. Löffler, Opt. Express 16, 13287 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, and J. F. Löffler, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, and C. David, Opt. Lett. 32, 172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Solak, Y. Ekinci, P. Käser, and S. Park, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

S. Linden, M. Wegener, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 315, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, Opt. Express 15, 11536 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. F. Koenderink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

Xiao, S.

Xue, J.

Z. Huang, J. Xue, Y. Hou, J. Chu, and D. H. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 74, 193105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H.-K.

Zhang, D. H.

Z. Huang, J. Xue, Y. Hou, J. Chu, and D. H. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 74, 193105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

K. Ray, M. H. Chowdhury, and J. R. Lakowicz, Anal. Chem. 79, 6480 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Ekinci, H. H. Solak, and J. F. Löffler, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci.

A. Mohammadi, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 6, 2024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

H. H. Solak, Y. Ekinci, P. Käser, and S. Park, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 25, 91 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Microsc. Microanal.

V. Y. Gertsman and Q. S. Kwok, Microsc. Microanal. 11, 410 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

V. M. Shalaev, Nat. Photonics 1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

Z. Huang, J. Xue, Y. Hou, J. Chu, and D. H. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 74, 193105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markoš, and C. M. Soukoulis, Phys. Rev. B 65, 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, R. T. Lechner, H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4721 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Sersic, M. Frimmer, E. Verhagen, and A. F. Koenderink, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 213902 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A

H. Schweizer, L. Fu, H. Gräbeldinger, H. Guo, N. Liu, S. Kaiser, and H. Giessen, Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA

R. Merlin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106, 1693 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

S. Linden, M. Wegener, and C. M. Soukoulis, Science 315, 47 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

E.D.Palik and G.Ghosh, eds., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) SEM image of one of the fabricated samples (diameter 2 r = 120 nm , period a = 200 nm ). (b) SEM image at an oblique angle with details on the vertical profile of one sample ( 2 r = 105 nm ) . (c) Model used for the FDTD calculations: h = 21 nm ; d = 24 nm ; a = 200 nm ; θ = 20 ° ; n Al 2 O 3 = 1.77 ; n quartz = 1.46 ; n Al is from [11]; 2 r = 135 , 120, 105, 87, 82, 72 nm ; a 3 - nm -thick Al 2 O 3 coating layer is also taken into account.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission [(a) and (c)] and reflection [(b) and (d)] spectra for samples with different disk diameters 2 r . (a) and (b) experimental, (c) and (d) theoretical FDTD results. Note that the reflection spectra in (b) were measured with two different setups ( 200 400 nm and 400 700 nm ). A small range of the spectra (shaded region between 380 420 nm ) is not shown, because the results were not reproducible owing to a low signal-to-noise ratio in both setups in this region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Real and (b) imaginary part of the relative magnetic permeability μ extracted from FDTD simulations for the fabricated samples.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Transmission spectra and (b) real part of the relative magnetic permeability μ extracted from FDTD simulations for the structural parameters provided in the legend. The oxide coating has been neglected.

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