Abstract

We present a fiber-optic interferometric system for measuring depth-resolved scattering in two angular dimensions using Fourier-domain low-coherence interferometry. The system is a unique hybrid of the Michelson and Sagnac interferometer topologies. The collection arm of the interferometer is scanned in two dimensions to detect angular scattering from the sample, which can then be analyzed to determine the structure of the scatterers. A key feature of the system is the full control of polarization of both the illumination and the collection fields, allowing for polarization-sensitive detection, which is essential for two-dimensional angular measurements. System performance is demonstrated using a double-layer microsphere phantom. Experimental data from samples with different sizes and acquired with different polarizations show excellent agreement with Mie theory, producing structural measurements with subwavelength accuracy.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 11252 (2001).
  2. C. S. Mulvey, A. L. Curtis, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1663 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, Biophys. J. 92, 3260 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. D. Wilson and T. H. Foster, Opt. Lett. 30, 2442 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Z. J. Smith and A. J. Berger, Opt. Lett. 33, 714 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D’Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Zhu, N. G. Terry, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).
  8. Y. Zhu, N. G. Terry, and A. Wax, Opt. Lett. 34, 3196 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. W. Pyhtila and A. Wax, Appl. Opt. 46, 1735 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

Z. J. Smith and A. J. Berger, Opt. Lett. 33, 714 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D’Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

C. S. Mulvey, A. L. Curtis, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, Biophys. J. 92, 3260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Pyhtila and A. Wax, Appl. Opt. 46, 1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2001 (1)

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 11252 (2001).

Arifler, D.

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, Biophys. J. 92, 3260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 11252 (2001).

Badizadegan, K.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 11252 (2001).

Berger, A. J.

Bigio, I. J.

C. S. Mulvey, A. L. Curtis, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boone, C. W.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 11252 (2001).

Brown, W. J.

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D’Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chalut, K. J.

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D’Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Curtis, A. L.

C. S. Mulvey, A. L. Curtis, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D’Amico, T. A.

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D’Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 11252 (2001).

Feld, M. S.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 11252 (2001).

Foster, T. H.

Georgakoudi, I.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 11252 (2001).

Gillenwater, A.

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, Biophys. J. 92, 3260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopal, V.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 11252 (2001).

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 11252 (2001).

Kalashnikov, M.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 11252 (2001).

Mueller, M.

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 11252 (2001).

Mulvey, C. S.

C. S. Mulvey, A. L. Curtis, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Obando, J. V.

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D’Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pavlova, I.

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, Biophys. J. 92, 3260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pyhtila, J. W.

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D’Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Pyhtila and A. Wax, Appl. Opt. 46, 1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, Biophys. J. 92, 3260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaheen, N. J.

Y. Zhu, N. G. Terry, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Singh, S. K.

C. S. Mulvey, A. L. Curtis, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, Z. J.

Sporn, T. A.

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D’Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Terry, N. G.

Y. Zhu, N. G. Terry, and A. Wax, Opt. Lett. 34, 3196 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D’Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhu, N. G. Terry, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Wax, A.

Y. Zhu, N. G. Terry, and A. Wax, Opt. Lett. 34, 3196 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D’Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Pyhtila and A. Wax, Appl. Opt. 46, 1735 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 11252 (2001).

Y. Zhu, N. G. Terry, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Wilson, J. D.

Woosley, J. T.

Y. Zhu, N. G. Terry, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, N. G. Terry, and A. Wax, Opt. Lett. 34, 3196 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, N. G. Terry, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, Biophys. J. 92, 3260 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

V. Backman, V. Gopal, M. Kalashnikov, K. Badizadegan, R. Gurjar, A. Wax, I. Georgakoudi, M. Mueller, C. W. Boone, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 11252 (2001).

C. S. Mulvey, A. L. Curtis, S. K. Singh, and I. J. Bigio, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1663 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Brown, J. W. Pyhtila, N. G. Terry, K. J. Chalut, T. A. D’Amico, T. A. Sporn, J. V. Obando, and A. Wax, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

Y. Zhu, N. G. Terry, J. T. Woosley, N. J. Shaheen, and A. Wax, J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MPG (3054 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (2674 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of MSI. (a) Schematic. d, optical path length from the fiber ends to the sample; θ, scattering angle; f, focal length; PC1–3, polarization controllers; P, polarizer; PM, powermeter; x and y, scan directions. (b) Optical path length of the signals.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scattering of the double-layer phantom under p-polarized illumination. (a), (b) Depth-resolved 2D angular scattering for p- (Media 1) and s-polarized (Media 2) scattering. (c), (d) p- and (e), (f) s-polarized 2D scattering for 6 and 10 μ m layers, respectively. (g), (h) and (i), (j) Corresponding Mie theory simulations. A, B, and C are lines along which data fitting is executed.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mie fitting results along lines (a) A, (b) B, and (c) C. (d) Normalized 1 χ 2 values indicating best fits in diameter.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 OPL and Intensity of MSI Signals

Equations (1)

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L 1 L 2 = 2 d or l 1 l 2 = 2 d n ,

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