Abstract

Cross-correlation (radar) frequency-domain photoacoustic (PA) imaging parameters [signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast, and spatial resolution] are explored. The application of nonlinear frequency modulation instead of the standard linear frequency chirps is investigated. In addition to the image produced by the amplitude of the cross correlation between input and detected signals, the phase of the correlation signal is used as a filter of the PA amplitude combined with linear or nonlinear frequency chirps to improve SNR, contrast, and spatial resolution. The experimental results with a high-frequency transducer exhibit more than 10 and 8 times contrast enhancement using nonlinear and linear chirps, respectively. Concomitant improvements in SNR and image resolution were also observed.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. A. Telenkov, A. Mandelis, B. Lashkari, and M. Forcht, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102029 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. A. Telenkov and A. Mandelis, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 044025 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. E. Cook and M. Bernfeld, Radar Signals: an Introduction to Theory and Application (Artech House, 1993).
  4. T. Misaridis and J. A. Jensen, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52, 192 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. S. Patterson and F. S. Foster, Ultrason. Imaging 5, 195 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. American National Standards Institute, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers in Health Care Facilities: Standard Z136.1-1993 (ANSI, Inc., 1993).

2009 (2)

S. A. Telenkov, A. Mandelis, B. Lashkari, and M. Forcht, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Telenkov and A. Mandelis, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 044025 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

T. Misaridis and J. A. Jensen, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52, 192 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

M. S. Patterson and F. S. Foster, Ultrason. Imaging 5, 195 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernfeld, M.

C. E. Cook and M. Bernfeld, Radar Signals: an Introduction to Theory and Application (Artech House, 1993).

Cook, C. E.

C. E. Cook and M. Bernfeld, Radar Signals: an Introduction to Theory and Application (Artech House, 1993).

Forcht, M.

S. A. Telenkov, A. Mandelis, B. Lashkari, and M. Forcht, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Foster, F. S.

M. S. Patterson and F. S. Foster, Ultrason. Imaging 5, 195 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, J. A.

T. Misaridis and J. A. Jensen, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52, 192 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lashkari, B.

S. A. Telenkov, A. Mandelis, B. Lashkari, and M. Forcht, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mandelis, A.

S. A. Telenkov and A. Mandelis, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 044025 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Telenkov, A. Mandelis, B. Lashkari, and M. Forcht, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Misaridis, T.

T. Misaridis and J. A. Jensen, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52, 192 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. S.

M. S. Patterson and F. S. Foster, Ultrason. Imaging 5, 195 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Telenkov, S. A.

S. A. Telenkov, A. Mandelis, B. Lashkari, and M. Forcht, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Telenkov and A. Mandelis, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 044025 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

T. Misaridis and J. A. Jensen, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 52, 192 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. A. Telenkov, A. Mandelis, B. Lashkari, and M. Forcht, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 102029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

S. A. Telenkov and A. Mandelis, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 044025 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultrason. Imaging (1)

M. S. Patterson and F. S. Foster, Ultrason. Imaging 5, 195 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

American National Standards Institute, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers in Health Care Facilities: Standard Z136.1-1993 (ANSI, Inc., 1993).

C. E. Cook and M. Bernfeld, Radar Signals: an Introduction to Theory and Application (Artech House, 1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic signal-processing technique for the FD method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of bandwidth and nonlinearity on SNR. Cross-correlation amplitude generated by (a) linear and (b) nonlinear chirps. Inverse of the SD of the phase generated by (c) linear and (d) nonlinear chirps.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images generated by (a) amplitude signal, (b) amplitude signal filtered by phase signal (linear chirp), and (c) amplitude signal filtered by phase signal (nonlinear chirp), with a high-frequency transducer ( 3.5 MHz ) .

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of signal traces produced with (a) FD amplitude, (b) combined FD amplitude and phase, and (c) pulsed-laser method, using a low-frequency transducer ( 500 kHz ) .

Equations (2)

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r ( t ) = cos ( 2 π f 0 t + 2 π B n T ch n 1 t n ) ,
CF = Signal mean in the lesion mean in the background Signal mean in the background .

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