Abstract

We report the development and demonstration of an X-band voltage-controlled photonic oscillator based on a whispering gallery mode resonator made of an electro-optic crystalline material. The oscillator has good spectral purity and wide, agile, linear tunability. We have modified the existing theoretical model of the opto-electronic oscillator to describe the performance of our tunable oscillator and have found a good agreement between the theoretical predictions and the measurement results. We show that the device is promising for higher-frequency applications where high-performance tunable oscillators with wide tunability do not exist.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. P. S. Khanna, Microwave J. 49, 22 (2006).
  2. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1725 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, and D. Eliyahu, in 2004 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (IEEE, 2004), vol. 1, p. 287.
  4. E. Rubiola, Phase Noise and Frequency Stability in Oscillators (Cambridge U. Press, 2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, in 2008 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), p. 811.
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Strekalov, D. Aveline, N. Yu, R. Thompson, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3052 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Express 15, 6768 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. L. Maleki, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, and A. B. Matsko, in Practical Applications of Microresonators in Optics and Photonics, A.B.Matsko, ed. (CRC Press, 2009), chap. 3.
  9. A. B. Matsko, L. Maleki, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2523 (2003).
  10. A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 34, 1300 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, in IEEE Proceedings of the Radar Conference (IEEE, 2009), vol. 1, p. 1.
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

A. P. S. Khanna, Microwave J. 49, 22 (2006).

2003 (2)

A. B. Matsko, L. Maleki, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2523 (2003).

D. Strekalov, D. Aveline, N. Yu, R. Thompson, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3052 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Aveline, D.

Eliyahu, D.

X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, and D. Eliyahu, in 2004 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (IEEE, 2004), vol. 1, p. 287.

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, in 2008 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), p. 811.
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 34, 1300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Express 15, 6768 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, L. Maleki, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2523 (2003).

L. Maleki, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, and A. B. Matsko, in Practical Applications of Microresonators in Optics and Photonics, A.B.Matsko, ed. (CRC Press, 2009), chap. 3.

A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, in IEEE Proceedings of the Radar Conference (IEEE, 2009), vol. 1, p. 1.
[CrossRef]

Khanna, A. P. S.

A. P. S. Khanna, Microwave J. 49, 22 (2006).

Liang, W.

A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 34, 1300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, in IEEE Proceedings of the Radar Conference (IEEE, 2009), vol. 1, p. 1.
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 34, 1300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Express 15, 6768 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, L. Maleki, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2523 (2003).

D. Strekalov, D. Aveline, N. Yu, R. Thompson, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3052 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, and D. Eliyahu, in 2004 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (IEEE, 2004), vol. 1, p. 287.

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, in 2008 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), p. 811.
[CrossRef]

L. Maleki, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, and A. B. Matsko, in Practical Applications of Microresonators in Optics and Photonics, A.B.Matsko, ed. (CRC Press, 2009), chap. 3.

A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, in IEEE Proceedings of the Radar Conference (IEEE, 2009), vol. 1, p. 1.
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 34, 1300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Express 15, 6768 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Strekalov, D. Aveline, N. Yu, R. Thompson, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 3052 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Matsko, L. Maleki, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2523 (2003).

L. Maleki, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, and A. B. Matsko, in Practical Applications of Microresonators in Optics and Photonics, A.B.Matsko, ed. (CRC Press, 2009), chap. 3.

A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, in IEEE Proceedings of the Radar Conference (IEEE, 2009), vol. 1, p. 1.
[CrossRef]

Rubiola, E.

E. Rubiola, Phase Noise and Frequency Stability in Oscillators (Cambridge U. Press, 2008).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 34, 1300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Savchenkov, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, and L. Maleki, Opt. Express 15, 6768 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, L. Maleki, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2523 (2003).

L. Maleki, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, and A. B. Matsko, in Practical Applications of Microresonators in Optics and Photonics, A.B.Matsko, ed. (CRC Press, 2009), chap. 3.

A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, in IEEE Proceedings of the Radar Conference (IEEE, 2009), vol. 1, p. 1.
[CrossRef]

Seidel, D.

A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, A. B. Matsko, V. S. Ilchenko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, Opt. Lett. 34, 1300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, in 2008 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), p. 811.
[CrossRef]

A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, in IEEE Proceedings of the Radar Conference (IEEE, 2009), vol. 1, p. 1.
[CrossRef]

Strekalov, D.

Thompson, R.

Yao, X. S.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1725 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, and D. Eliyahu, in 2004 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (IEEE, 2004), vol. 1, p. 287.

Yu, N.

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. B. Matsko, L. Maleki, A. A. Savchenkov, and V. S. Ilchenko, J. Mod. Opt. 50, 2523 (2003).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Microwave J. (1)

A. P. S. Khanna, Microwave J. 49, 22 (2006).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (5)

A. A. Savchenkov, W. Liang, V. S. Ilchenko, A. B. Matsko, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, in IEEE Proceedings of the Radar Conference (IEEE, 2009), vol. 1, p. 1.
[CrossRef]

L. Maleki, V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, and A. B. Matsko, in Practical Applications of Microresonators in Optics and Photonics, A.B.Matsko, ed. (CRC Press, 2009), chap. 3.

X. S. Yao, L. Maleki, and D. Eliyahu, in 2004 IEEE MTT-S International Microwave Symposium Digest (IEEE, 2004), vol. 1, p. 287.

E. Rubiola, Phase Noise and Frequency Stability in Oscillators (Cambridge U. Press, 2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Eliyahu, D. Seidel, and L. Maleki, in 2008 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2008), p. 811.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the TOEO.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Curve (1) stands for the phase noise of the WGM-based tunable OEO. The oscillation frequency is 9.8 GHz . The peak at 1.5 × 10 5 Hz results from external noise coming from the laboratory environment. Curve (2) is the theoretical limit evaluated by using Eq. (1). Curve (3) represents the noise floor of our measurement system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) RF power out of the photodiode versus the oscillation frequency. The oscillation frequency is changed by modification of the DC bias applied to the optical resonator. (b) Measurement of the tunability speed of the open TOEO loop.

Equations (1)

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L ( f ) = 2 q ρ pd R P + F k B T 2 P RF [ 1 + ( δ ν S 21 2 f ) 2 ] [ 1 + δ ν f 1 f ] ,

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