Abstract

A sensor based on rotational signatures in the submillimeter (SMM) region is described. This sensor uses frequency synthesis techniques in the region around 10GHz, with nonlinear diode frequency multiplication to 210270GHz. This provides not only a nearly ideal instrument function, but also frequency control and agility that significantly enhance the performance of the spectrometer as a sensor. The SMM frequencies provide significantly stronger absorptions and broader spectroscopic coverage than lower-frequency microwave systems. Among the characteristics of the sensor are absolute specificity, low atmospheric clutter, good sensitivity, and near-term paths to systems that are both compact and very inexpensive.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Y. He and B. J. Orr, Appl. Phys. B 85, 355 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. J. Thorpe, D. Balslev-Clausen, M. S. Kirchner, and J. Ye, Opt. Express 16, 2387 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Gherman and D. Romanini, Opt. Express 10, 1033 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  6. A. A. Kosterev, A. L. Malinovsky, F. K. Tittle, C. Gmachle, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, J. N. Baollargeon, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Opt. 40, 5522 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Kassi, M. Chenevier, L. Gianfrani, A. Salhi, Y. Rouillard, A. Ouvrard, and D. Romanini, Opt. Express 14, 11142 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. Vertrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064026 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Keilmann, C. Gohle, and R. Holzwarth, Opt. Lett. 29, 1542 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. T. Sanders, Opt. Photonics News 16, 36 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, Opt. Lett. 21, 1000 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. Debecker, A. K. Mohamed, and D. Romanini, Opt. Express 13, 2906 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. W. Crowe, W. L. Bishop, D. W. Porterfield, J. L. Hesler, and R. M. Weikle, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 2104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Albert, D. T. Petkie, R. P. A. Bettens, S. P. Belov, and F. C. De Lucia, Anal. Chem. 70, 719A (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. I. R. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. A. Harmon and R. A. Cheville, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 2128 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nature Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. I. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 131, 1299 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. “Clean Air Act Ammendments of 1990,” 5.6130, 101st Congress of the United States of America (April 3, 1990).
  20. J. H. Seinfeld, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics of Air Pollution (Wiley, 1986).
  21. G. Mejean, S. Kassi, and D. Romanini, Opt. Lett. 33, 1231 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

I. Vertrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

M. Kassi, M. Chenevier, L. Gianfrani, A. Salhi, Y. Rouillard, A. Ouvrard, and D. Romanini, Opt. Express 14, 11142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. He and B. J. Orr, Appl. Phys. B 85, 355 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 131, 1299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

I. R. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, Opt. Photonics News 16, 36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Debecker, A. K. Mohamed, and D. Romanini, Opt. Express 13, 2906 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Crowe, W. L. Bishop, D. W. Porterfield, J. L. Hesler, and R. M. Weikle, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 2104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. A. Harmon and R. A. Cheville, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 2128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Keilmann, C. Gohle, and R. Holzwarth, Opt. Lett. 29, 1542 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

T. Gherman and D. Romanini, Opt. Express 10, 1033 (2002).
[PubMed]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nature Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

S. Albert, D. T. Petkie, R. P. A. Bettens, S. P. Belov, and F. C. De Lucia, Anal. Chem. 70, 719A (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

Albert, S.

S. Albert, D. T. Petkie, R. P. A. Bettens, S. P. Belov, and F. C. De Lucia, Anal. Chem. 70, 719A (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balslev-Clausen, D.

Baollargeon, J. N.

Behnke, M.

I. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 131, 1299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Belov, S. P.

S. Albert, D. T. Petkie, R. P. A. Bettens, S. P. Belov, and F. C. De Lucia, Anal. Chem. 70, 719A (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bettens, R. P. A.

S. Albert, D. T. Petkie, R. P. A. Bettens, S. P. Belov, and F. C. De Lucia, Anal. Chem. 70, 719A (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bishop, W. L.

T. W. Crowe, W. L. Bishop, D. W. Porterfield, J. L. Hesler, and R. M. Weikle, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 2104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Chenevier, M.

Cheville, R. A.

S. A. Harmon and R. A. Cheville, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 2128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

Clerici, C.

I. Vertrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crowe, T. W.

T. W. Crowe, W. L. Bishop, D. W. Porterfield, J. L. Hesler, and R. M. Weikle, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 2104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

De Lucia, F. C.

I. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 131, 1299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Albert, D. T. Petkie, R. P. A. Bettens, S. P. Belov, and F. C. De Lucia, Anal. Chem. 70, 719A (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debecker, I.

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nature Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gherman, T.

Gianfrani, L.

Gmachle, C.

Gohle, C.

Gonthiez, T.

I. Vertrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Harmon, S. A.

S. A. Harmon and R. A. Cheville, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 2128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

Y. He and B. J. Orr, Appl. Phys. B 85, 355 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hesler, J. L.

T. W. Crowe, W. L. Bishop, D. W. Porterfield, J. L. Hesler, and R. M. Weikle, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 2104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

Hutchinson, A. L.

Jones, R. J.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kassi, M.

Kassi, S.

Keilmann, F.

Kirchner, M. S.

Kosterev, A. A.

Ma, L.-S.

Malinovsky, A. L.

Mbele, V.

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medvedev, I.

I. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 131, 1299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Medvedev, I. R.

I. R. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mejean, G.

Mohamed, A. K.

Moll, K. D.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orr, B. J.

Y. He and B. J. Orr, Appl. Phys. B 85, 355 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ouvrard, A.

Petkie, D. T.

S. Albert, D. T. Petkie, R. P. A. Bettens, S. P. Belov, and F. C. De Lucia, Anal. Chem. 70, 719A (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porterfield, D. W.

T. W. Crowe, W. L. Bishop, D. W. Porterfield, J. L. Hesler, and R. M. Weikle, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 2104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Romanini, D.

Rouillard, Y.

Safdi, B.

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salhi, A.

Sanders, S. T.

S. T. Sanders, Opt. Photonics News 16, 36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seinfeld, J. H.

J. H. Seinfeld, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics of Air Pollution (Wiley, 1986).

Sivco, D. L.

Thorpe, M. J.

Tittle, F. K.

Vertrillard-Courtillot, I.

I. Vertrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weikle, R. M.

T. W. Crowe, W. L. Bishop, D. W. Porterfield, J. L. Hesler, and R. M. Weikle, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 2104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Zhang, X.-C.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nature Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

S. Albert, D. T. Petkie, R. P. A. Bettens, S. P. Belov, and F. C. De Lucia, Anal. Chem. 70, 719A (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) (1)

I. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, Analyst (Cambridge, U.K.) 131, 1299 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Y. He and B. J. Orr, Appl. Phys. B 85, 355 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

I. R. Medvedev, M. Behnke, and F. C. De Lucia, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Harmon and R. A. Cheville, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 2128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

T. W. Crowe, W. L. Bishop, D. W. Porterfield, J. L. Hesler, and R. M. Weikle, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 2104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

I. Vertrillard-Courtillot, T. Gonthiez, C. Clerici, and D. Romanini, J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 064026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. A. Diddams, L. Hollberg, and V. Mbele, Nature 445, 627 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater. (1)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, Nature Mater. 1, 26 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Photonics News (1)

S. T. Sanders, Opt. Photonics News 16, 36 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. J. Thorpe, K. D. Moll, R. J. Jones, B. Safdi, and J. Ye, Science 311, 1595 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

“Clean Air Act Ammendments of 1990,” 5.6130, 101st Congress of the United States of America (April 3, 1990).

J. H. Seinfeld, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics of Air Pollution (Wiley, 1986).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

50 GHz of a spectrum of a mixture of 20 gases on a highly compressed scale taken with a FASSST backward-wave-oscillator-based system (top). 0.4% of this spectrum is expanded to show individual lines (bottom). Comparison with the library spectra of eight gases shows their presence in the gas mixture (middle).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Overview of a SMM frequency multiplication, heterodyne receiver gas sensor. In this system a frequency synthesizer near 10 GHz drives a 24 × diode-based frequency multiplier to provide the local oscillator of a heterodyne receiver. A sideband generation scheme provides synchronized, but offset in frequency, drive to a similar multiplier chain for probe power to the folded 1.2 m absorption cell.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observed spectra at each of the six fingerprint regions selected for each gas for the family of 32 gases considered, with enlargements of specific fingerprint regions. Right, results of a quantitative LSQ analysis. A digital lock-in recovers a near first derivative line shape that results from a small FM modulation on the probe driver.

Metrics