Abstract

We report the fabrication of long-period gratings (LPGs) in wavelength-scale microfibers with diameters from 1.5to3μm. The LPGs were fabricated by use of a femtosecond IR laser to periodically modify the surface of the fibers. These LPGs have grating periods of a few tens of micrometers, much smaller than those in conventional optical fibers. A compact 10-period LPG with a device length of only 150μm demonstrated a strong resonant dip of >20dB around 1330nm. These microfiber LPGs would be useful in-fiber components for microfiber-based devices, circuits, and sensors.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Andrews, S. R.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergano, N. S.

Birks, T. A.

Brambilla, G.

Chen, X. W.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, Nano Lett. 5, 259 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheung, G.

Davidson, C. R.

Ding, W.

Eggleton, B. J.

Finazzi, V.

Gattass, R. R.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, Nano Lett. 5, 259 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, S. L.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, Nano Lett. 5, 259 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Jin, W.

Ju, J.

Judkins, J. B.

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Liu, L.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, Nano Lett. 5, 259 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lou, J. Y.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, Nano Lett. 5, 259 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, Opt. Express 12, 1025 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mägi, E. C.

Maxwell, I.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, Nano Lett. 5, 259 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, Opt. Express 12, 1025 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Moore, E. D.

Pedrazzani, J. R.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinvurzel, P.

Sumetsky, M.

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L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, R. R. Gattass, S. L. He, X. W. Chen, L. Liu, and E. Mazur, Nano Lett. 5, 259 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, and E. Mazur, Opt. Express 12, 1025 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, Nature 426, 816 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Wang, Y.-P.

Xiao, L.

Xuan, H.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experiment setup for fabricating MFs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the femtosecond laser system for fabricating LPGs in MFs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

LPG fabricated in an 2.3 μ m diameter MF. (a) Microscope image showing the periodic notches along the fiber. (b) SEM image showing two adjacent notches. (c) SEM image showing the details of a notch induced by femtosecond laser pulses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectrum of an MF LPG with a different number of grating periods. The diameter of the MF is 2.4 μ m , and the grating pitch is 15 μ m . The dashed lines are the calculated resonant wavelengths corresponding to coupling to different higher-order modes for a fiber with 2.362 μ m .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Grating pitches as the function of wavelength for modes coupling between HE 11 and the first group of higher-order modes for an MF with 2.6 μ m diameter; (b) measured transmission spectrum of an LPG with a grating pitch of 21 μ m fabricated in an 2.6 μ m diameter MF. The dashed lines in (b) are the calculated resonant wavelengths for a fiber with 2.663 μ m .

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral response of an MF LPG to temperature. Inset, measured dip (resonant) wavelength as a function of temperature.

Equations (1)

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λ res = ( n eff , 0 n eff , v ) Λ ,

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