Abstract

The interaction of light with noble metal nanoparticles deposited onto the top surface of a semiconductor has been investigated using the finite-difference time-domain method. The scattering is calculated for spherical and hemispherical silver nanoparticles placed in a periodic two-dimensional array on the upper surface of a semi-infinite silicon substrate. The results show that the contact area between hemispherical particles and the silicon significantly reduces the forward scattering. The use of an oxide buffer layer to separate the particle from the semiconductor is investigated and is seen to be important if the forward scattering of light is to be enhanced.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, and T. Trupke, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, and H. Stiebig, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2488 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191113 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053110 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1377 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. L. Temple, G. D. K. Mahanama, H. S. Reehal, and D. M. Bagnall, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1978 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Yu. A. Akimov, K. Ostrikov, and E. P. Li, Plasmonics 4, 107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech, 2000).
  10. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983).
  11. M. A. Green and M. Keevers, Prog. Photovoltaics 3, 189 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 72, 075405 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2009

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Temple, G. D. K. Mahanama, H. S. Reehal, and D. M. Bagnall, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu. A. Akimov, K. Ostrikov, and E. P. Li, Plasmonics 4, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, and H. Stiebig, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2488 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, and T. Trupke, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 72, 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. A. Green and M. Keevers, Prog. Photovoltaics 3, 189 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, Yu. A.

Yu. A. Akimov, K. Ostrikov, and E. P. Li, Plasmonics 4, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 72, 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bagnall, D. M.

T. L. Temple, G. D. K. Mahanama, H. S. Reehal, and D. M. Bagnall, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983).

Carius, R.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, and H. Stiebig, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2488 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, and T. Trupke, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 72, 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duche, D.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Escoubas, L.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, B.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Flory, F.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green and M. Keevers, Prog. Photovoltaics 3, 189 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hägglund, C.

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hagness, S. C.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech, 2000).

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983).

Kasemo, B.

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Keevers, M.

M. A. Green and M. Keevers, Prog. Photovoltaics 3, 189 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, E. P.

Yu. A. Akimov, K. Ostrikov, and E. P. Li, Plasmonics 4, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, P.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, and H. Stiebig, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2488 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mahanama, G. D. K.

T. L. Temple, G. D. K. Mahanama, H. S. Reehal, and D. M. Bagnall, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mathian, G.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monestier, F.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, E.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, and H. Stiebig, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2488 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ostrikov, K.

Yu. A. Akimov, K. Ostrikov, and E. P. Li, Plasmonics 4, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petersson, G.

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pillai, S.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, and T. Trupke, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 72, 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reehal, H. S.

T. L. Temple, G. D. K. Mahanama, H. S. Reehal, and D. M. Bagnall, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Royer, F.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, and H. Stiebig, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2488 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schaadt, D. M.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J. J.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stiebig, H.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, and H. Stiebig, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2488 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sukmanowski, J.

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, and H. Stiebig, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2488 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 72, 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taflove, A.

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech, 2000).

Temple, T. L.

T. L. Temple, G. D. K. Mahanama, H. S. Reehal, and D. M. Bagnall, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Torchio, P.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, and T. Trupke, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, E. T.

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zach, M.

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. R. Catchpole and A. Polman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hägglund, M. Zach, G. Petersson, and B. Kasemo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 053110 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. T. Yu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. Pillai, K. R. Catchpole, and T. Trupke, J. Appl. Phys. 101, 093105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

E. Moulin, J. Sukmanowski, P. Luo, R. Carius, F. Royer, and H. Stiebig, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 2488 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, Phys. Rev. B 72, 075405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Plasmonics

Yu. A. Akimov, K. Ostrikov, and E. P. Li, Plasmonics 4, 107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovoltaics

M. A. Green and M. Keevers, Prog. Photovoltaics 3, 189 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, and G. Mathian, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1377 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Temple, G. D. K. Mahanama, H. S. Reehal, and D. M. Bagnall, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93, 1978 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: the Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech, 2000).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ratio of scattering to absorption cross-sectional area ( C sca / C abs ) for a 60 nm diameter silver sphere.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross section at x = 0 of the FDTD computational domain.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized forward scattering for spherical particles in a two-dimensional periodic array. In the legend the number before the slash is the diameter of the sphere, and the other number represents the center-to-center spacing between particles.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Forward scattering, backward scattering, and extinction coefficients for a 60 nm diameter hemispherical particle on the top surface of semi-infinite silicon. Forward scattering due to a 60 nm sphere on silicon is included for comparison. Scattering is not normalized in this figure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized forward scattering when 60 nm spherical hemispheres are separated from the silicon using SiO 2 films. The legend indicates the thickness of the SiO 2 film.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε ( ω ) = ε ω p 2 ω 2 + i γ ω ,
C abs = 2 π λ Im [ α ] ,
C sca = 1 6 π ( 2 π λ ) 4 | α | 2 ,
α = 3 V ε 1 ε + 2 ,

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