Abstract

The UV photorefraction of Zr-doped lithium niobate (LN:Zr) was investigated. The experimental results show that LN:Zr crystals have high resistance against photorefraction in the UV region as well as in the visible range and can withstand a UV light intensity of above 105Wcm2. According to the fitting results of erasing curves with UV and green light, a two-center O2-defect model was suggested. Our results indicate that LN:Zr is an excellent candidate for optical damage resistance from the UV to the visible spectrum.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2007 (2)

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, Th. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Soljačié and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nature Mater. 3, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and L. Zhao, Opt. Lett. 25, 129 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Berger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Ferroelectr. Rev. 1, 195 (1998).

1997 (1)

Y. S. Bai and R. Kachru, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2944 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

I. Zaritskii, L. Rakitina, G. Corradi, K. Polgár, and A. Bugai, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 8457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1987 (1)

H. C. Külich, Opt. Commun. 64, 407 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

O. F. Schirmer and D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 35 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Adibi, A.

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Akella, A.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, Y. S.

Y. S. Bai and R. Kachru, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2944 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Berger, V.

V. Berger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Broderick, N. G. R.

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bugai, A.

I. Zaritskii, L. Rakitina, G. Corradi, K. Polgár, and A. Bugai, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 8457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Buse, K.

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, Y. Kong, L. Shi, L. Sun, H. Liu, X. Li, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Opt. Express 14, 10898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Corradi, G.

I. Zaritskii, L. Rakitina, G. Corradi, K. Polgár, and A. Bugai, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 8457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Granzow, T.

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, Th. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanna, D. C.

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herth, P.

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, Th. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hesselink, L.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Z.

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, Y. Kong, L. Shi, L. Sun, H. Liu, X. Li, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Opt. Express 14, 10898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imlau, M.

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, Th. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jian, J.

G. Zhong, J. Jian, and Z. Wu, in Proceedings of the 11th International Quantum Electronics Conference (IEEE, 1980), p. 631.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Soljačié and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nature Mater. 3, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kachru, R.

Y. S. Bai and R. Kachru, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2944 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Kong, Y.

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, Y. Kong, L. Shi, L. Sun, H. Liu, X. Li, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Opt. Express 14, 10898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and L. Zhao, Opt. Lett. 25, 129 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krätzig, E.

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, Th. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Külich, H. C.

H. C. Külich, Opt. Commun. 64, 407 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lande, D.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, F.

Li, X.

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, Y. Kong, L. Shi, L. Sun, H. Liu, X. Li, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Opt. Express 14, 10898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, Y. Kong, L. Shi, L. Sun, H. Liu, X. Li, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Opt. Express 14, 10898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, Y. Kong, L. Shi, L. Sun, H. Liu, X. Li, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Opt. Express 14, 10898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and L. Zhao, Opt. Lett. 25, 129 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Offerhaus, H. L.

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orlov, S. S.

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polgár, K.

I. Zaritskii, L. Rakitina, G. Corradi, K. Polgár, and A. Bugai, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 8457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pryalkin, V. I.

Psaltis, D.

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, H.

Rakitina, L.

I. Zaritskii, L. Rakitina, G. Corradi, K. Polgár, and A. Bugai, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 8457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, G. W.

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubinina, N. M.

Schaniel, D.

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, Th. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schirmer, O. F.

O. F. Schirmer and D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 35 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

Soljacié, M.

M. Soljačié and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nature Mater. 3, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Song, F.

Sun, L.

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, Y. Kong, L. Shi, L. Sun, H. Liu, X. Li, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Opt. Express 14, 10898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Q.

Tomita, Y.

Volk, T.

T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Ferroelectr. Rev. 1, 195 (1998).

T. Volk, V. I. Pryalkin, and N. M. Rubinina, Opt. Lett. 15, 996 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von der Linde, D.

O. F. Schirmer and D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 35 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wen, J.

Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wöhlecke, M.

T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Ferroelectr. Rev. 1, 195 (1998).

Woike, Th.

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, Th. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Z.

G. Zhong, J. Jian, and Z. Wu, in Proceedings of the 11th International Quantum Electronics Conference (IEEE, 1980), p. 631.

Xu, J.

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, Y. Kong, L. Shi, L. Sun, H. Liu, X. Li, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Opt. Express 14, 10898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and L. Zhao, Opt. Lett. 25, 129 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yan, W.

Yao, J.

Zaritskii, I.

I. Zaritskii, L. Rakitina, G. Corradi, K. Polgár, and A. Bugai, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 8457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, Y. Kong, L. Shi, L. Sun, H. Liu, X. Li, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Opt. Express 14, 10898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, G. Zhang, F. Li, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, S. Liu, F. Song, Y. Kong, X. Chen, H. Qiao, J. Yao, and L. Zhao, Opt. Lett. 25, 129 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yan, Y. Kong, L. Shi, L. Sun, H. Liu, X. Li, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Opt. Express 14, 10898 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Zhao, L.

Zhao, Y.

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhong, G.

G. Zhong, J. Jian, and Z. Wu, in Proceedings of the 11th International Quantum Electronics Conference (IEEE, 1980), p. 631.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

Y. Kong, J. Wen, and H. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 280 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kong, S. Liu, Y. Zhao, H. Liu, S. Chen, and J. Xu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081908 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. F. Schirmer and D. von der Linde, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 35 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Ferroelectr. Rev. (1)

T. Volk and M. Wöhlecke, Ferroelectr. Rev. 1, 195 (1998).

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

I. Zaritskii, L. Rakitina, G. Corradi, K. Polgár, and A. Bugai, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 3, 8457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. Buse, A. Adibi, and D. Psaltis, Nature 393, 665 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mater. (1)

M. Soljačié and J. D. Joannopoulos, Nature Mater. 3, 211 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. C. Külich, Opt. Commun. 64, 407 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Qiao, J. Xu, G. Zhang, X. Zhang, Q. Sun, and G. Zhang, Phys. Rev. B 70, 094101 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

V. Berger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 4136 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. G. R. Broderick, G. W. Ross, H. L. Offerhaus, D. J. Richardson, and D. C. Hanna, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4345 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Bai and R. Kachru, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2944 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Herth, T. Granzow, D. Schaniel, Th. Woike, M. Imlau, and E. Krätzig, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 067404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

L. Hesselink, S. S. Orlov, A. Liu, A. Akella, D. Lande, and R. R. Neurgaonkar, Science 282, 1089 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (1)

X. Li, Y. Kong, H. Liu, L. Sun, J. Xu, S. Chen, L. Zhang, Z. Huang, S. Liu, and G. Zhang, Solid State Commun. 141, 113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. Zhong, J. Jian, and Z. Wu, in Proceedings of the 11th International Quantum Electronics Conference (IEEE, 1980), p. 631.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of UV photorefractive diffraction efficiency and saturated refractive index change of LN:Zr on the doping concentration of Zr. For comparison, the open symbols show the data for LN : Mg 5 . The lines are the guides to the eye.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Beam distortion of the transmitted UV lights (wavelength 351 nm , intensity 1.6 × 10 5 W cm 2 ) after passing through LN crystals. (a) PLN, (b) LN : Zr 1 , (c) LN : Zr 2 , (d) LN : Zr 5 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized typical erasing curves for (left) Mg- and (right) Zr-doped LN with (top row) UV and (bottom row) green illumination. The triangles represent experimental data, and the solid curves fits of double-exponential functions.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fit Parameters of the Normalized Typical Erasing Curves (Fig. 3)

Metrics