Abstract

Optical phased arrays are versatile components enabling rapid and precise beam steering. An integrated approach is followed in which a 1D optical phased array is fabricated on silicon-on-insulator. The optical phased array consists of 16 parallel grating couplers spaced 2μm apart. Steering in one direction is done thermo-optically by means of a titanium electrode on top of the structure using the phased array principle, while steering in the other direction is accomplished by wavelength tuning. At a wavelength of 1550 nm, continuous thermo-optical steering of 2.3° and wavelength steering of 14.1° is reported.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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2008

L. Shi, P. F. McManamon, and P. J. Bos, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2005

2003

A. Polishuk and S. Arnon, Opt. Eng. 42, 2015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

Arnon, S.

A. Polishuk and S. Arnon, Opt. Eng. 42, 2015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

L. Shi, P. F. McManamon, and P. J. Bos, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, D. L.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dorschner, T. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, L. J.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, D. S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holz, M.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Houdré, R.

Kotlyar, M. V.

Krauss, T. F.

Le Thomas, N.

Liberman, S.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Magno, F.

McManamon, P. F.

L. Shi, P. F. McManamon, and P. J. Bos, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. Q.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O'Brien, D.

Passaro, V. M. N.

Polishuk, A.

A. Polishuk and S. Arnon, Opt. Eng. 42, 2015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reinhart, F. K.

Resler, D. P.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, R. C.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shi, L.

L. Shi, P. F. McManamon, and P. J. Bos, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Skolnik, M. I.

M. I. Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems (McGraw-Hill, 1962).

Stauffer, J. M.

Tsarev, A. V.

Vasey, F.

Watson, E. A.

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Appl. Phys.

L. Shi, P. F. McManamon, and P. J. Bos, J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Eng.

A. Polishuk and S. Arnon, Opt. Eng. 42, 2015 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. IEEE

P. F. McManamon, T. A. Dorschner, D. L. Corkum, L. J. Friedman, D. S. Hobbs, M. Holz, S. Liberman, H. Q. Nguyen, D. P. Resler, R. C. Sharp, and E. A. Watson, Proc. IEEE 84, 268 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. I. Skolnik, Introduction to Radar Systems (McGraw-Hill, 1962).

ePIXfab, the silicon photonics platform, http://www.epixfab.eu/.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the beam steering component. The inset shows the far-field image.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized far-field pattern along the θ angle for wavelengths of 1500, 1550, and 1600 nm. The inset shows the simulated outcoupling efficiency of one grating coupler.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized far-field pattern along the ψ angle of a reference array of 16 grating couplers at 1550 nm without the heater electrode. The crosses show a simulation fit. The dashed curve shows the simulated far-field pattern of one grating coupler.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized far-field pattern along the ψ angle of an array of 16 grating couplers with injection currents of 0 and 3.95 mA. The peak at a current of 0 mA is the detail of the main peak around 20 ° shown in inset (a). The crosses show a sinc fit. Inset (b) shows the steering angle ψ as a function of the injected current.

Equations (3)

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sin   θ = Λ n eff λ 0 n ct Λ ,
sin   ψ = λ 0 ϕ 2 π d ,
Δ ψ FWHM 0.886 λ 0 N d   cos   ψ ,

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