Abstract

Ion-beam enhanced etching is used to pattern a bulk lithium niobate crystal with ultrathin membranes. By the implementation of an air gap beneath the membrane, high index contrast is achieved. A buried amorphous layer, created by irradiation with He ions, is removed by means of wet chemical etching in hydro- fluoric acid. Membranes having thicknesses down to 200nm are fabricated. The etched air gaps and the membranes exhibit a uniform thickness over the entire etched area, and their widths can be purposefully adjusted over a wide range by choosing appropriate ion energies and fluences as well as annealing conditions.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Q. Wu, and M. B. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112906 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, C. Tian, and C. Evans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3197 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill III, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2293 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. A. Ramadan, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1407 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, H. Kwak, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2888 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl'Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. B. Park, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 1533 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Djukic, R. M. Roth, J. T. Yardley, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, Opt. Express 12, 6159 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Izuhara, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, Electron. Lett. 39, 1118 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161115 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Rabiei and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4603 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. Szafraniak, I. Radu, R. Scholz, M. Alexe, and U. Gösele, Integr. Ferroelectr. 55, 983 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Djukic, T. Izuhara, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, in Proceedings on Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 1, p. 229.
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Hartung, R. Geiss, Th. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, R. Iliew, Th. Pertsch, F. Lederer, W. Wesch, E.-B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Winter Topicals Meeting Series (IEEE, 2009), p. 64.
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. F. Ziegler, http://www.srim.org/.
  16. K. Gärtner, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 227, 522 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, and W. Wesch, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 250, 164 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Reinisch, F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, and W. Wesch, J. Electrochem. Soc. 155, D298 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, W. Wesch, and A. Tünnermann, in Growth, Modification, and Analysis by Ion Beams at the Nanoscale, J.K. N.Lindner, M.Toulemonde, W.J.Weber, and B.L.Doyle, eds. (Materials Research Society, 2005), paper 0908-OO16-01.1.
  20. A. Meldrum, L. A. Boatner, W. J. Weber, and R. C. Ewing, J. Nucl. Mater. 300, 242 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Th. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, Th. Höche, and W. Wesch, “Annealing behavior of lithium niobate irradiated with He ions at 100 K,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (to be published).

2008

J. Reinisch, F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, and W. Wesch, J. Electrochem. Soc. 155, D298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl'Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. B. Park, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 1533 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Q. Wu, and M. B. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, and W. Wesch, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 250, 164 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

K. Gärtner, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 227, 522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

I. Szafraniak, I. Radu, R. Scholz, M. Alexe, and U. Gösele, Integr. Ferroelectr. 55, 983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Izuhara, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, Electron. Lett. 39, 1118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Meldrum, L. A. Boatner, W. J. Weber, and R. C. Ewing, J. Nucl. Mater. 300, 242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. A. Ramadan, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, H. Kwak, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, C. Tian, and C. Evans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill III, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Alexe, M.

I. Szafraniak, I. Radu, R. Scholz, M. Alexe, and U. Gösele, Integr. Ferroelectr. 55, 983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

Y. B. Park, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 1533 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bakhru, H.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Q. Wu, and M. B. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Djukic, R. M. Roth, J. T. Yardley, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, Opt. Express 12, 6159 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Izuhara, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, Electron. Lett. 39, 1118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, C. Tian, and C. Evans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill III, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Djukic, T. Izuhara, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, in Proceedings on Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 1, p. 229.
[CrossRef]

Bakhru, S.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Q. Wu, and M. B. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Djukic, R. M. Roth, J. T. Yardley, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, Opt. Express 12, 6159 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Izuhara, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, Electron. Lett. 39, 1118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Djukic, T. Izuhara, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, in Proceedings on Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 1, p. 229.
[CrossRef]

Boatner, L. A.

A. Meldrum, L. A. Boatner, W. J. Weber, and R. C. Ewing, J. Nucl. Mater. 300, 242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cargill, G. S.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill III, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cross, L. E.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill III, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Degl'Innocenti, R.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl'Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Djukic, D.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Q. Wu, and M. B. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Djukic, R. M. Roth, J. T. Yardley, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, Opt. Express 12, 6159 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Djukic, T. Izuhara, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, in Proceedings on Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 1, p. 229.
[CrossRef]

Dunn, K.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Q. Wu, and M. B. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C.

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, C. Tian, and C. Evans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ewing, R. C.

A. Meldrum, L. A. Boatner, W. J. Weber, and R. C. Ewing, J. Nucl. Mater. 300, 242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gärtner, K.

K. Gärtner, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 227, 522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geiss, R.

H. Hartung, R. Geiss, Th. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, R. Iliew, Th. Pertsch, F. Lederer, W. Wesch, E.-B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Winter Topicals Meeting Series (IEEE, 2009), p. 64.
[CrossRef]

Gischkat, Th.

J. Reinisch, F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, and W. Wesch, J. Electrochem. Soc. 155, D298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, and W. Wesch, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 250, 164 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, W. Wesch, and A. Tünnermann, in Growth, Modification, and Analysis by Ion Beams at the Nanoscale, J.K. N.Lindner, M.Toulemonde, W.J.Weber, and B.L.Doyle, eds. (Materials Research Society, 2005), paper 0908-OO16-01.1.

H. Hartung, R. Geiss, Th. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, R. Iliew, Th. Pertsch, F. Lederer, W. Wesch, E.-B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Winter Topicals Meeting Series (IEEE, 2009), p. 64.
[CrossRef]

Th. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, Th. Höche, and W. Wesch, “Annealing behavior of lithium niobate irradiated with He ions at 100 K,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (to be published).

Gösele, U.

I. Szafraniak, I. Radu, R. Scholz, M. Alexe, and U. Gösele, Integr. Ferroelectr. 55, 983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Guarino, A.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl'Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

P. Rabiei and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Günter, P.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl'Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hartung, H.

F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, and W. Wesch, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 250, 164 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, W. Wesch, and A. Tünnermann, in Growth, Modification, and Analysis by Ion Beams at the Nanoscale, J.K. N.Lindner, M.Toulemonde, W.J.Weber, and B.L.Doyle, eds. (Materials Research Society, 2005), paper 0908-OO16-01.1.

H. Hartung, R. Geiss, Th. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, R. Iliew, Th. Pertsch, F. Lederer, W. Wesch, E.-B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Winter Topicals Meeting Series (IEEE, 2009), p. 64.
[CrossRef]

Höche, Th.

Th. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, Th. Höche, and W. Wesch, “Annealing behavior of lithium niobate irradiated with He ions at 100 K,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (to be published).

Huang, M. B.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Q. Wu, and M. B. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iliew, R.

H. Hartung, R. Geiss, Th. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, R. Iliew, Th. Pertsch, F. Lederer, W. Wesch, E.-B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Winter Topicals Meeting Series (IEEE, 2009), p. 64.
[CrossRef]

Izuhara, T.

T. Izuhara, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, Electron. Lett. 39, 1118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Djukic, T. Izuhara, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, in Proceedings on Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 1, p. 229.
[CrossRef]

Kley, E.-B.

F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, and W. Wesch, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 250, 164 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, W. Wesch, and A. Tünnermann, in Growth, Modification, and Analysis by Ion Beams at the Nanoscale, J.K. N.Lindner, M.Toulemonde, W.J.Weber, and B.L.Doyle, eds. (Materials Research Society, 2005), paper 0908-OO16-01.1.

H. Hartung, R. Geiss, Th. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, R. Iliew, Th. Pertsch, F. Lederer, W. Wesch, E.-B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Winter Topicals Meeting Series (IEEE, 2009), p. 64.
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, C. Tian, and C. Evans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill III, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, H.

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, H. Kwak, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laulicht, B.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Q. Wu, and M. B. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

H. Hartung, R. Geiss, Th. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, R. Iliew, Th. Pertsch, F. Lederer, W. Wesch, E.-B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Winter Topicals Meeting Series (IEEE, 2009), p. 64.
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Q. Wu, and M. B. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levy, M.

T. A. Ramadan, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, C. Tian, and C. Evans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, H. Kwak, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill III, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill III, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meldrum, A.

A. Meldrum, L. A. Boatner, W. J. Weber, and R. C. Ewing, J. Nucl. Mater. 300, 242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Min, B.

Y. B. Park, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 1533 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Q. Wu, and M. B. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Djukic, R. M. Roth, J. T. Yardley, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, Opt. Express 12, 6159 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Izuhara, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, Electron. Lett. 39, 1118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Ramadan, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, C. Tian, and C. Evans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, H. Kwak, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill III, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Djukic, T. Izuhara, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, in Proceedings on Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 1, p. 229.
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. B.

Y. B. Park, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 1533 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, Th.

H. Hartung, R. Geiss, Th. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, R. Iliew, Th. Pertsch, F. Lederer, W. Wesch, E.-B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Winter Topicals Meeting Series (IEEE, 2009), p. 64.
[CrossRef]

Poberaj, G.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl'Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rabiei, P.

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Rabiei and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Radojevic, A. M.

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, C. Tian, and C. Evans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, H. Kwak, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Radu, I.

I. Szafraniak, I. Radu, R. Scholz, M. Alexe, and U. Gösele, Integr. Ferroelectr. 55, 983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramadan, T. A.

T. A. Ramadan, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reinisch, J.

J. Reinisch, F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, and W. Wesch, J. Electrochem. Soc. 155, D298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rezzonico, D.

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl'Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roth, R. M.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Q. Wu, and M. B. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Djukic, R. M. Roth, J. T. Yardley, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, Opt. Express 12, 6159 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Izuhara, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, Electron. Lett. 39, 1118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Djukic, T. Izuhara, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, in Proceedings on Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 1, p. 229.
[CrossRef]

Scholz, R.

I. Szafraniak, I. Radu, R. Scholz, M. Alexe, and U. Gösele, Integr. Ferroelectr. 55, 983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schrempel, F.

J. Reinisch, F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, and W. Wesch, J. Electrochem. Soc. 155, D298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, and W. Wesch, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 250, 164 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, W. Wesch, and A. Tünnermann, in Growth, Modification, and Analysis by Ion Beams at the Nanoscale, J.K. N.Lindner, M.Toulemonde, W.J.Weber, and B.L.Doyle, eds. (Materials Research Society, 2005), paper 0908-OO16-01.1.

H. Hartung, R. Geiss, Th. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, R. Iliew, Th. Pertsch, F. Lederer, W. Wesch, E.-B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Winter Topicals Meeting Series (IEEE, 2009), p. 64.
[CrossRef]

Th. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, Th. Höche, and W. Wesch, “Annealing behavior of lithium niobate irradiated with He ions at 100 K,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (to be published).

Steier, W. H.

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Szafraniak, I.

I. Szafraniak, I. Radu, R. Scholz, M. Alexe, and U. Gösele, Integr. Ferroelectr. 55, 983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tian, C.

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, C. Tian, and C. Evans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, W. Wesch, and A. Tünnermann, in Growth, Modification, and Analysis by Ion Beams at the Nanoscale, J.K. N.Lindner, M.Toulemonde, W.J.Weber, and B.L.Doyle, eds. (Materials Research Society, 2005), paper 0908-OO16-01.1.

H. Hartung, R. Geiss, Th. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, R. Iliew, Th. Pertsch, F. Lederer, W. Wesch, E.-B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Winter Topicals Meeting Series (IEEE, 2009), p. 64.
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

Y. B. Park, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 1533 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weber, W. J.

A. Meldrum, L. A. Boatner, W. J. Weber, and R. C. Ewing, J. Nucl. Mater. 300, 242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wesch, W.

J. Reinisch, F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, and W. Wesch, J. Electrochem. Soc. 155, D298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, and W. Wesch, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 250, 164 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, W. Wesch, and A. Tünnermann, in Growth, Modification, and Analysis by Ion Beams at the Nanoscale, J.K. N.Lindner, M.Toulemonde, W.J.Weber, and B.L.Doyle, eds. (Materials Research Society, 2005), paper 0908-OO16-01.1.

Th. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, Th. Höche, and W. Wesch, “Annealing behavior of lithium niobate irradiated with He ions at 100 K,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (to be published).

H. Hartung, R. Geiss, Th. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, R. Iliew, Th. Pertsch, F. Lederer, W. Wesch, E.-B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Winter Topicals Meeting Series (IEEE, 2009), p. 64.
[CrossRef]

Wu, L. Q.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Q. Wu, and M. B. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yardley, J. T.

Ziegler, J. F.

J. F. Ziegler, http://www.srim.org/.

Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.)

Y. B. Park, B. Min, K. J. Vahala, and H. A. Atwater, Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.) 18, 1533 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. M. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Q. Wu, and M. B. Huang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., A. Kumar, H. Bakhru, C. Tian, and C. Evans, Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3197 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, Jr., R. Liu, L. E. Cross, G. S. Cargill III, A. Kumar, and H. Bakhru, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2293 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Ramadan, M. Levy, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1407 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Radojevic, M. Levy, H. Kwak, and R. M. Osgood, Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2888 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Rabiei and W. H. Steier, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Rabiei and P. Gunter, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4603 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

T. Izuhara, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, Electron. Lett. 39, 1118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Integr. Ferroelectr.

I. Szafraniak, I. Radu, R. Scholz, M. Alexe, and U. Gösele, Integr. Ferroelectr. 55, 983 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

J. Reinisch, F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, and W. Wesch, J. Electrochem. Soc. 155, D298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nucl. Mater.

A. Meldrum, L. A. Boatner, W. J. Weber, and R. C. Ewing, J. Nucl. Mater. 300, 242 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

A. Guarino, G. Poberaj, D. Rezzonico, R. Degl'Innocenti, and P. Günter, Nat. Photonics 1, 407 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B

K. Gärtner, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 227, 522 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, and W. Wesch, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 250, 164 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Other

Th. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, Th. Höche, and W. Wesch, “Annealing behavior of lithium niobate irradiated with He ions at 100 K,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (to be published).

F. Schrempel, Th. Gischkat, H. Hartung, E.-B. Kley, W. Wesch, and A. Tünnermann, in Growth, Modification, and Analysis by Ion Beams at the Nanoscale, J.K. N.Lindner, M.Toulemonde, W.J.Weber, and B.L.Doyle, eds. (Materials Research Society, 2005), paper 0908-OO16-01.1.

D. Djukic, T. Izuhara, R. M. Roth, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. Bakhru, and H. Bakhru, in Proceedings on Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) (IEEE, 2005), Vol. 1, p. 229.
[CrossRef]

H. Hartung, R. Geiss, Th. Gischkat, F. Schrempel, R. Iliew, Th. Pertsch, F. Lederer, W. Wesch, E.-B. Kley, and A. Tünnermann, in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Winter Topicals Meeting Series (IEEE, 2009), p. 64.
[CrossRef]

J. F. Ziegler, http://www.srim.org/.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Defect concentration versus depth for x-cut LN irradiated with 200 keV He ions at a temperature of 100 K as well as after annealing at a temperature of 300 ° C . The dashed line indicates the minimum defect concentration for etching.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Side view SEM images of membranes fabricated in x-cut LN by irradiation with 200 keV He ions at 100 K . (b) Width of the air gap as a function of the ion fluence. Thermal treatment was applied at 300 ° C for 30 min , and etching was done in 3.7% HF solution at 40 ° C .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Stack of three 540 nm thick membranes separated by 450 nm wide air gaps and (b) PC waveguide in a freestanding 450 nm thick LN membrane.

Metrics