Abstract

We demonstrate that a femtosecond-laser filament in both molecular and atomic gases is birefringent for a copropagating probe pulse. Any input-probe polarization is decomposed into two orthogonal components, the optical axis being in the pump polarization direction. In molecular gases, the birefringence is mainly due to the delayed rotational molecular-wave packet; the probe pulse thus experiences several revivals in time. The two probe components end up spatially separated in the far field. In atomic gases such as argon, the effect is weaker and is attributed to the instantaneous electronic cross-phase modulation.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. M. Zheltikov, Opt. Lett. 32, 2052 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
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2008

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 205001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Béjot, Y. Petit, L. Bonacina, J. Kasparian, M. Moret, and J.-P. Wolf, Opt. Express 16, 7564 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, Opt. Lett. 33, 2731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2002

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

F. Rosca-Pruna and M. J. J. Vrakking, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 153902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Machholm and N. Henriksen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193001 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. J. Larsen, K. Hald, N. Bjerre, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2470 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

N. Henriksen, Chem. Phys. Lett. 312, 196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

B. Friedrich and D. Herschbach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4623 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baertschy, M.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, R. A.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Béjot, P.

Benedetti, E.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjerre, N.

J. J. Larsen, K. Hald, N. Bjerre, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2470 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonacina, L.

Calegari, F.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castillejo, M.

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Châteauneuf, M.

Chen, Y.

Chen, Y.-H.

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 205001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

De Silvestri, S.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubois, J.

France, M.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Friedrich, B.

B. Friedrich and D. Herschbach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4623 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gasilov, S.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greene, C. H.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grillon, G.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hald, K.

J. J. Larsen, K. Hald, N. Bjerre, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2470 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hay, N.

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Henriksen, N.

M. Machholm and N. Henriksen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193001 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Henriksen, Chem. Phys. Lett. 312, 196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herschbach, D.

B. Friedrich and D. Herschbach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4623 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasparian, J.

Lange, R.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, J. J.

J. J. Larsen, K. Hald, N. Bjerre, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2470 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Machholm, M.

M. Machholm and N. Henriksen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193001 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marangos, J. P.

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marceau, C.

Mason, M. B.

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Milchberg, H. M.

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 205001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moret, M.

Murnane, M. M.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nibbering, E.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nisoli, M.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petit, Y.

Prade, B.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ripoche, J.-F.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rosca-Pruna, F.

F. Rosca-Pruna and M. J. J. Vrakking, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 153902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stagira, S.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stapelfeldt, H.

J. J. Larsen, K. Hald, N. Bjerre, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2470 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Théberge, F.

Varma, S.

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 205001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Velotta, R.

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vozzi, C.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

F. Rosca-Pruna and M. J. J. Vrakking, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 153902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, N.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinacht, T. C.

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, J.-P.

Zheltikov, A. M.

Chem. Phys. Lett.

N. Henriksen, Chem. Phys. Lett. 312, 196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

J.-F. Ripoche, G. Grillon, B. Prade, M. France, E. Nibbering, R. Lange, and A. Mysyrowicz, Opt. Commun. 135, 310 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

F. Calegari, C. Vozzi, S. Gasilov, E. Benedetti, G. Sansone, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, and S. Stagira, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 123006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Friedrich and D. Herschbach, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4623 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Machholm and N. Henriksen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 193001 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, and H. M. Milchberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 205001 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, T. C. Weinacht, N. Wagner, M. Baertschy, C. H. Greene, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 013903 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Rosca-Pruna and M. J. J. Vrakking, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 153902 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Larsen, K. Hald, N. Bjerre, and H. Stapelfeldt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2470 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical beam profile of the probe after interaction with the pump in 1   bar of (a) argon, (b) air, and (c) N 2 as a function of the time delay. In (a), (b), (c), and (d), the analyzer is crossed with respect with the input probe polarization [see f)]. In (d), the probe-beam transmission through the crossed analyzer is shown when the pump beam is blocked. In (e), the probe-beam pattern is shown with a parallel analyzer (the pump is blocked). The linear color scale is the same for all images.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Probe energy, integrated over the full beam pattern, as a function of the delay in (a) air (solid curve), (b) nitrogen (dashed curves), and (c) argon (dotted curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Delays, corresponding to each birefringence revival event in air for N 2 (squares) and O 2 (circles), plotted against the revival counts. Linear fits are also given for both constituents of air. The slopes of the fits are direct measurements of the quarter of the molecular rotational period of each molecule. Inset, both intercepts in agreement with our determination of the zero delay within the error margins.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Probe-beam patterns as a function of the analyzer angle with 0.07 ps delay in (a) argon and (b) air. Patterns of the probe only (pump blocked) are shown for reference in (c). The linear color scale is the same for all images.

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