Abstract

In this investigation, a method for the preparation of gradient-refractive-index (GRIN) lenses by UV-energy-controlled polymerization has been developed. A glass reaction tube equipped with a sloped UV lamp was designed. Methyl methacrylate and diphenyl sulfide were used as the reactive monomer and nonreactive dopant, respectively. Ciba IRGACURE 184 (1-hydroxy-cyclohexyl-phenyl-ketone) was used as the initiator. The effects of initiator concentration, the addition of acrylic polymers, and the preparation conditions on the optical characteristics of the GRIN lenses produced by this method were also investigated. Refractive index distributions and image transmission properties were estimated for all GRIN lenses prepared.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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[CrossRef]

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J. H. Liu, H. Y. Wang, and C. H. Ho, J. Polym. Res. 10, 13 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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1997 (2)

T. Fukushima, T. Yokota, and T. Sakamoto, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1938 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Liu and H. T. Liu, Opt. Lett. 22, 668 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, and Y. H. Chang, Polym. J. (Tokyo, Jpn.) 27, 310 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. H. Liu, J. H. Wang, and M. H. Chu, Angew. Makromol. Chem. 174, 1 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

Y. Ohtsuka and Y. Terao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

Arai, J.

Bernardo, L. M.

Chang, Y. H.

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, and Y. H. Chang, Polym. J. (Tokyo, Jpn.) 27, 310 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. H.

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, and Y. H. Chang, Polym. J. (Tokyo, Jpn.) 27, 310 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. C.

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, and Y. H. Chang, Polym. J. (Tokyo, Jpn.) 27, 310 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Chiu, Y. H.

J. H. Liu, P. C. Yang, and Y. H. Chiu, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 44, 5933 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M. H.

Chu, M. H.

J. H. Liu, J. H. Wang, and M. H. Chu, Angew. Makromol. Chem. 174, 1 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fukushima, T.

T. Fukushima, T. Yokota, and T. Sakamoto, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1938 (1997).
[CrossRef]

George, N.

Ho, B. C.

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, and Y. H. Chang, Polym. J. (Tokyo, Jpn.) 27, 310 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ho, C. H.

J. H. Liu, H. Y. Wang, and C. H. Ho, J. Polym. Res. 10, 13 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

Ishigure, T.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Kim, P. S.

Kim, Y. S.

Koike, Y.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. T.

Liu, J. H.

J. H. Liu, P. C. Yang, and Y. H. Chiu, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 44, 5933 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Liu, D. S. Wu, and K. Y. Tseng, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 205, 2205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Liu, H. Y. Wang, and C. H. Ho, J. Polym. Res. 10, 13 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Liu and H. T. Liu, Opt. Lett. 22, 668 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Liu, J. H. Wang, and M. H. Chu, Angew. Makromol. Chem. 174, 1 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marinho, F. J.

McLeod, R. R.

Mencaglia, A.

Nagaoka, T.

H. Tsuchida, T. Nagaoka, and K. Yamamoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 37, 3633 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nihei, E.

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oh, C. H.

Ohtsuka, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka and T. Sugaho, Appl. Opt. 22, 413 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka and Y. Terao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Okano, F.

Okui, M.

Park, S.

Philip, W.

Reed, W. A.

Sakamoto, T.

T. Fukushima, T. Yokota, and T. Sakamoto, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1938 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schnitzer, M. J.

Song, S. H.

Stewart, G.

Sugaho, T.

Terao, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka and Y. Terao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, K. Y.

J. H. Liu, D. S. Wu, and K. Y. Tseng, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 205, 2205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, H.

H. Tsuchida, T. Nagaoka, and K. Yamamoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 37, 3633 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. Y.

J. H. Liu, H. Y. Wang, and C. H. Ho, J. Polym. Res. 10, 13 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. H.

J. H. Liu, J. H. Wang, and M. H. Chu, Angew. Makromol. Chem. 174, 1 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D. S.

J. H. Liu, D. S. Wu, and K. Y. Tseng, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 205, 2205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

H. Tsuchida, T. Nagaoka, and K. Yamamoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 37, 3633 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, N.

Yan, M. F.

Yang, P. C.

J. H. Liu, P. C. Yang, and Y. H. Chiu, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 44, 5933 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ye, C.

Yokota, T.

T. Fukushima, T. Yokota, and T. Sakamoto, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1938 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Makromol. Chem. (1)

J. H. Liu, J. H. Wang, and M. H. Chu, Angew. Makromol. Chem. 174, 1 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

Y. Ohtsuka and Y. Terao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

G. Stewart, A. Mencaglia, W. Philip, and W. Jin, J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 43 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Fukushima, T. Yokota, and T. Sakamoto, J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1938 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, T. Ishigure, and E. Nihei, J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 1475 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Res. (1)

J. H. Liu, H. Y. Wang, and C. H. Ho, J. Polym. Res. 10, 13 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. (1)

J. H. Liu, P. C. Yang, and Y. H. Chiu, J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 44, 5933 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 (1)

H. Tsuchida, T. Nagaoka, and K. Yamamoto, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 1 37, 3633 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Macromol. Chem. Phys. (1)

J. H. Liu, D. S. Wu, and K. Y. Tseng, Macromol. Chem. Phys. 205, 2205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Polym. J. (Tokyo, Jpn.) (1)

B. C. Ho, J. H. Chen, W. C. Chen, and Y. H. Chang, Polym. J. (Tokyo, Jpn.) 27, 310 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the equipment for UV-controlled polymerization of plastic rods. The UV lamp is equipped with a small slope angle. The highest energy exists at the bottom and decreases gradually from the bottom to the top, as indicated by the dotted lines. This is consistent with gel zone formed in the reaction tube between A and B.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the initiator concentration on the Δ n distribution of the GRIN rods. Initiator concentrations: circles, 1.0 wt. % ; diamonds, 1.5 wt. % ; triangles, 2.0 wt. % . Increased initiator concentration decreases the refractive index difference.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Recorded color image transmitted through a freshly fabricated GRIN lens with 15 mm diameter and 80 mm length.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Effects of the Addition of PMMA on the Optical Characteristics of GRIN rods a

Equations (3)

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n 0 sin θ max = NA ,
NA = n 0 ( 2 Δ n ) 1 2 ,
L = 2 π A ,

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