Abstract

We propose to use low-coherence-length cw optical sources with a broad spectrum in heterodyne near-field scanning microscopy in order to imitate optical pulse propagation and to obtain information about spectrally variant properties of nanophotonic components. The dispersion difference in the interferometer arms for a symmetric acousto-optic modulator arrangement is shown to be negligible over appreciable bandwidths. Demonstration of the principle of operation and viability of this approach is provided by measurement of the group refractive index of a silicon channel waveguide.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2007 (1)

2006 (5)

2005 (1)

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, and M. Kristensen, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

A. Nesci and Y. Fainman, Proc. SPIE 5181, 62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 40, L383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kiupers, and N. F. van Hulst, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Nesci, R. Dändliker, and H. Herzig, Opt. Lett. 26, 208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Abashin, M.

Baba, T.

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 40, L383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balistreri, M. L. M.

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kiupers, and N. F. van Hulst, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J. J.

J. D. Mills, T. Chaipiboonwong, W. S. Brocklesby, M. D. B. Charlton, C. Netti, M. E. Zoorob, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bolten, J.

Borel, P. I.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, and M. Kristensen, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, and M. Kristensen, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brocklesby, W. S.

J. D. Mills, T. Chaipiboonwong, W. S. Brocklesby, M. D. B. Charlton, C. Netti, M. E. Zoorob, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chaipiboonwong, T.

J. D. Mills, T. Chaipiboonwong, W. S. Brocklesby, M. D. B. Charlton, C. Netti, M. E. Zoorob, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, M. D. B.

J. D. Mills, T. Chaipiboonwong, W. S. Brocklesby, M. D. B. Charlton, C. Netti, M. E. Zoorob, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Charvolin, T.

B. Cluzel, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, L. Lalouat, F. de Fornel, C. Sauvan, and P. Lalanne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cluzel, B.

B. Cluzel, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, L. Lalouat, F. de Fornel, C. Sauvan, and P. Lalanne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ctyroký, J.

Dändliker, R.

de Fornel, F.

B. Cluzel, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, L. Lalouat, F. de Fornel, C. Sauvan, and P. Lalanne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dulkeith, E.

Fainman, Y.

Först, M.

Foster, M. A.

Frandsen, L. H.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, and M. Kristensen, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gersen, H.

H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, W. M. J.

Hadji, E.

B. Cluzel, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, L. Lalouat, F. de Fornel, C. Sauvan, and P. Lalanne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hara, G.

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 40, L383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Herzig, H.

Houdré, R.

Jágerská, J.

Kiupers, L.

Korterik, J. P.

H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kiupers, and N. F. van Hulst, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, and M. Kristensen, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lalanne, P.

B. Cluzel, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, L. Lalouat, F. de Fornel, C. Sauvan, and P. Lalanne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lalouat, L.

B. Cluzel, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, L. Lalouat, F. de Fornel, C. Sauvan, and P. Lalanne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Le Thomas, N.

Lear, K. L.

R. Yan, G. Yuan, R. Pownall, and K. L. Lear, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE (IEEE, 2007), pp. 543-544.

Levy, U.

Lipson, M.

Manolatou, C.

Märki, I.

Mills, J. D.

J. D. Mills, T. Chaipiboonwong, W. S. Brocklesby, M. D. B. Charlton, C. Netti, M. E. Zoorob, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moormann, C.

Nakagawa, W.

Nesci, A.

Netti, C.

J. D. Mills, T. Chaipiboonwong, W. S. Brocklesby, M. D. B. Charlton, C. Netti, M. E. Zoorob, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Picard, E.

B. Cluzel, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, L. Lalouat, F. de Fornel, C. Sauvan, and P. Lalanne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pownall, R.

R. Yan, G. Yuan, R. Pownall, and K. L. Lear, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE (IEEE, 2007), pp. 543-544.

Sakai, A.

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 40, L383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sauvan, C.

B. Cluzel, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, L. Lalouat, F. de Fornel, C. Sauvan, and P. Lalanne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schares, L.

Schmidt, B. S.

Sharping, J. E.

Tortora, P.

Turner, C.

Vaccaro, L.

van Hulst, N. F.

H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kiupers, and N. F. van Hulst, J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1169 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Volkov, V. S.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, and M. Kristensen, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wahlbrink, T.

Waldow, M.

Xia, F.

Yan, R.

R. Yan, G. Yuan, R. Pownall, and K. L. Lear, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE (IEEE, 2007), pp. 543-544.

Yuan, G.

R. Yan, G. Yuan, R. Pownall, and K. L. Lear, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE (IEEE, 2007), pp. 543-544.

Zoorob, M. E.

J. D. Mills, T. Chaipiboonwong, W. S. Brocklesby, M. D. B. Charlton, C. Netti, M. E. Zoorob, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

B. Cluzel, E. Picard, T. Charvolin, E. Hadji, L. Lalouat, F. de Fornel, C. Sauvan, and P. Lalanne, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Mills, T. Chaipiboonwong, W. S. Brocklesby, M. D. B. Charlton, C. Netti, M. E. Zoorob, and J. J. Baumberg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 051101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 (1)

A. Sakai, G. Hara, and T. Baba, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. Part 2 40, L383 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, P. I. Borel, L. H. Frandsen, and M. Kristensen, Phys. Rev. B 72, 035118 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, Phys. Rev. E 68, 026604 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. Nesci and Y. Fainman, Proc. SPIE 5181, 62 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. L. M. Balistreri, H. Gersen, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, Science 294, 1080 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. Yan, G. Yuan, R. Pownall, and K. L. Lear, Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE (IEEE, 2007), pp. 543-544.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Heterodyne NSOM setup with symmetrical AOM arrangements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical spectrum of SLD. (b) Temporal cross correlation of this source obtained in the HNSOM setup by varying delay line position with fixed probe position. Autocorrelation of spectral data is also shown for comparison.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of near-field amplitude image obtained in HNSOM setup with broad-spectrum optical source. Approximate boundaries of waveguide from topography image are shown with dashed lines.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) (a) Optical amplitude over the waveguide length for different positions of the delay line. (b) Positions of the amplitude maxima and their linear fitting.

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