Abstract

Researchers employed various well-developed concepts from conventional optics in designing novel plasmonic devices, which allow us to construct a framework to describe the propagation, diffraction, and interference of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on a chip. Here we present what we believe to be the first direct mapping of the UV SPPs on an Al2O3Al surface using a UV-compatible near-field scanning optical microscope system. UV SPP modes launched by one-dimensional slits or two-dimensional groove arrays and corresponding interference phenomenon were both observed, which may enrich the studies on subwavelength optics on a chip.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (1)

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 9, 462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, Nature Mater. 7, 435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. Ding, and F. Bartoli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julie, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zia and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. Ding, and F. Bartoli, Opt. Express 15, 18050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, Nature 441, 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, Nano Lett. 6, 361 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Maier, Steve R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, Nature 441, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, Q. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, Opt. Express 13, 6964 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W.'t Hoof, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Monroy, F. Omnes, and F. Calle, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, R33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aigouy, L.

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julie, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alkemade, P. F. A.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W.'t Hoof, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andrews, Steve R.

S. Maier, Steve R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartoli, F.

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. Ding, and F. Bartoli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. Ding, and F. Bartoli, Opt. Express 15, 18050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blok, H.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W.'t Hoof, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. Zia and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. B.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Calle, F.

E. Monroy, F. Omnes, and F. Calle, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, R33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-H.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. C.

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, Opt. Express 13, 6964 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, Y.

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. Ding, and F. Bartoli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. Ding, and F. Bartoli, Opt. Express 15, 18050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubois, G.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W.'t Hoof, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eliel, E. R.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W.'t Hoof, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Z.

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. Ding, and F. Bartoli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. Ding, and F. Bartoli, Opt. Express 15, 18050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gan, Q.

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. Ding, and F. Bartoli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 256803 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Gan, Z. Fu, Y. Ding, and F. Bartoli, Opt. Express 15, 18050 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

S. Maier, Steve R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gbur, G.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W.'t Hoof, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gray, S. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoof, G. W.'t

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W.'t Hoof, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hugonin, J. P.

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julie, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, E. X.

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, Nano Lett. 6, 361 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Julie, G.

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julie, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasu, M.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, Nature 441, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kunishi, W.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, Nature 441, 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuzmin, N.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W.'t Hoof, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lalanne, P.

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julie, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 9, 462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenstra, D.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W.'t Hoof, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 9, 462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, Nature Mater. 7, 435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, Q. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S.

S. Maier, Steve R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Makimoto, T.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, Nature 441, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

S. Maier, Steve R. Andrews, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 176805 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathet, V.

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julie, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyai, E.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, Nature 441, 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monroy, E.

E. Monroy, F. Omnes, and F. Calle, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, R33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mortier, M.

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julie, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noda, S.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, Nature 441, 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohnishi, D.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, Nature 441, 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okano, T.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, Nature 441, 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omnes, F.

E. Monroy, F. Omnes, and F. Calle, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18, R33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985), Vol. 1, p. 398.

Pearson, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Vol. 111 of Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

Rydh, A.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, K.

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, Nature 441, 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schouten, H. F.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W.'t Hoof, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shao, D. B.

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, Opt. Express 13, 6964 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srituravanich, W.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 9, 462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taniyasu, Y.

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, Nature 441, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uppuluri, S. M.

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, Nano Lett. 6, 361 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Visser, T. D.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W.'t Hoof, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, Nano Lett. 6, 361 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 9, 462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q.

Z. Liu, Q. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welp, U.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, Nano Lett. 6, 361 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 9, 462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yin, L.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 9, 462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, Nature Mater. 7, 435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, Science 308, 534 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, Q. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zia, R.

R. Zia and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 253107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 467 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (4)

W. Srituravanich, N. Fang, C. Sun, Q. Luo, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 4, 1085 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, S. M. Uppuluri, E. X. Jin, and X. Xu, Nano Lett. 6, 361 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, Q. Wei, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 5, 957 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, Y. Wang, J. Yao, H. Lee, W. Srituravanich, and X. Zhang, Nano Lett. 9, 462 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

R. Zia and M. L. Brongersma, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2, 426 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (4)

E. Miyai, K. Sakai, T. Okano, W. Kunishi, D. Ohnishi, and S. Noda, Nature 441, 946 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Taniyasu, M. Kasu, and T. Makimoto, Nature 441, 325 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 424, 824 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, Nature 445, 39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater. (1)

X. Zhang and Z. Liu, Nature Mater. 7, 435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

L. Aigouy, P. Lalanne, J. P. Hugonin, G. Julie, V. Mathet, and M. Mortier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 153902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the UV-NSOM working in the collection mode. SPPs are collected by an aperture cantilever probe, and the light intensity is detected by a photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM image of the sample, with three gratings on the Al 2 O 3 Al film. (b) Near-field raster scan image of the field intensity distribution on the Al 2 O 3 Al film.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Dispersion curves for the flat Al/air interface calculated by Eq. (1) (black solid line) and the FDTD method (dots, for a Al 2 O 3 film with a thickness of 0, 20, 30 and 40 nm , respectively). (b) FDTD numerical modeling results (solid curve) compared with the 1D intensity distribution extracted from the two rectangles in Fig. 2b (dots).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Near-field raster scan image of the field intensity distribution above the 2D groove array. Inset, SEM image of the sample, with a 2D groove array on the Al 2 O 3 Al film. (b) By changing the maximum value of the intensity bar, an obvious 2D interference pattern can be observed at the right edge of the array (see the rectangular box). (c) Zoom-in image of the field intensity distribution in the rectangular box in (b). (d) 3D FDTD modeling result for SPP mode patterns at 20 nm above the metal surface launched by groove arrays. The period of the groove is set to be 250 nm , and the size of a single unit is 140 nm × 140 nm . The dimension of the simulation region is 3.6 μ m × 2 μ m × 0.8 μ m , with a uniform cell of Δ x = Δ y = 10 nm , and Δ z = 20 nm .

Equations (1)

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k x = ω c ( ε 1 ε 2 ε 1 + ε 2 ) 1 2 = 2 π λ sp ,

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