Abstract

All-optical encryption for optical code-division multiple-access systems with interleaved waveband-switching modulation is experimentally demonstrated. The scheme explores dual-pump four-wave mixing in a 35cm highly nonlinear bismuth oxide fiber to achieve XOR operation of the plaintext and the encryption key. Bit 0 and bit 1 of the encrypted data are represented by two different wavebands. Unlike on–off keying encryption methods, the encrypted data in this approach has the same intensity for both bit 0 and bit 1. Thus no plaintext or ciphertext signatures are observed.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Wu, A. Agrawal, I. Glesk, E. Narimanov, S. Etemad, and P. Prucnal, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CFF5.
  2. J. M. Castro, I. B. Djordjevic, and D. F. Geraghty, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1875 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. P. Fok, K. Kravtsov, Y. Deng, Z. Wang, T. Wang, and P. R. Prucnal, presented at the International Conference on Photonics in Switching, Sapporo, Japan, August 2008, invited paper S-03-5.
  4. C. W. Son, Y. J. Jung, S. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. K. Gil, and N. K. Park, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim (2007).
  5. R. C. Menendez, P. Toliver, S. Galli, A. Agarwal, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3219 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. H. Shake, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 655 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. P. Fok and P. R. Prucnal, in IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting (2008), paper ThG 3.
  8. Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4228 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Vahala, R. Paiella, and G. Hunziker, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 3, 698 (1997).
  10. C.-S. Brès, Y.-K. Huang, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, J. Opt. Netw. 6, 599 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Schneier, Applied Cryptography, 2nd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 1996).

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

1997 (1)

K. Vahala, R. Paiella, and G. Hunziker, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 3, 698 (1997).

Agarwal, A.

Agrawal, A.

B. Wu, A. Agrawal, I. Glesk, E. Narimanov, S. Etemad, and P. Prucnal, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CFF5.

Banwell, T.

Brès, C.-S.

Castro, J. M.

Deng, Y.

M. P. Fok, K. Kravtsov, Y. Deng, Z. Wang, T. Wang, and P. R. Prucnal, presented at the International Conference on Photonics in Switching, Sapporo, Japan, August 2008, invited paper S-03-5.

Djordjevic, I. B.

Etemad, S.

R. C. Menendez, P. Toliver, S. Galli, A. Agarwal, T. Banwell, J. Jackel, J. Young, and S. Etemad, J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 3219 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Wu, A. Agrawal, I. Glesk, E. Narimanov, S. Etemad, and P. Prucnal, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CFF5.

Fok, M. P.

M. P. Fok, K. Kravtsov, Y. Deng, Z. Wang, T. Wang, and P. R. Prucnal, presented at the International Conference on Photonics in Switching, Sapporo, Japan, August 2008, invited paper S-03-5.

M. P. Fok and P. R. Prucnal, in IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting (2008), paper ThG 3.

Galli, S.

Geraghty, D. F.

Gil, S. K.

C. W. Son, Y. J. Jung, S. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. K. Gil, and N. K. Park, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim (2007).

Glesk, I.

C.-S. Brès, Y.-K. Huang, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, J. Opt. Netw. 6, 599 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Wu, A. Agrawal, I. Glesk, E. Narimanov, S. Etemad, and P. Prucnal, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CFF5.

Huang, Y.-K.

Hunziker, G.

K. Vahala, R. Paiella, and G. Hunziker, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 3, 698 (1997).

Jackel, J.

Jiang, Z.

Jung, Y. J.

C. W. Son, Y. J. Jung, S. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. K. Gil, and N. K. Park, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim (2007).

Kim, J. H.

C. W. Son, Y. J. Jung, S. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. K. Gil, and N. K. Park, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim (2007).

Kravtsov, K.

M. P. Fok, K. Kravtsov, Y. Deng, Z. Wang, T. Wang, and P. R. Prucnal, presented at the International Conference on Photonics in Switching, Sapporo, Japan, August 2008, invited paper S-03-5.

Leaird, D. E.

Lee, S.

C. W. Son, Y. J. Jung, S. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. K. Gil, and N. K. Park, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim (2007).

Menendez, R. C.

Narimanov, E.

B. Wu, A. Agrawal, I. Glesk, E. Narimanov, S. Etemad, and P. Prucnal, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CFF5.

Paiella, R.

K. Vahala, R. Paiella, and G. Hunziker, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 3, 698 (1997).

Park, N. K.

C. W. Son, Y. J. Jung, S. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. K. Gil, and N. K. Park, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim (2007).

Prucnal, P.

B. Wu, A. Agrawal, I. Glesk, E. Narimanov, S. Etemad, and P. Prucnal, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CFF5.

Prucnal, P. R.

C.-S. Brès, Y.-K. Huang, I. Glesk, and P. R. Prucnal, J. Opt. Netw. 6, 599 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Fok, K. Kravtsov, Y. Deng, Z. Wang, T. Wang, and P. R. Prucnal, presented at the International Conference on Photonics in Switching, Sapporo, Japan, August 2008, invited paper S-03-5.

M. P. Fok and P. R. Prucnal, in IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting (2008), paper ThG 3.

Schneier, B.

B. Schneier, Applied Cryptography, 2nd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 1996).

Shake, T. H.

Son, C. W.

C. W. Son, Y. J. Jung, S. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. K. Gil, and N. K. Park, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim (2007).

Toliver, P.

Vahala, K.

K. Vahala, R. Paiella, and G. Hunziker, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 3, 698 (1997).

Wang, T.

M. P. Fok, K. Kravtsov, Y. Deng, Z. Wang, T. Wang, and P. R. Prucnal, presented at the International Conference on Photonics in Switching, Sapporo, Japan, August 2008, invited paper S-03-5.

Wang, Z.

M. P. Fok, K. Kravtsov, Y. Deng, Z. Wang, T. Wang, and P. R. Prucnal, presented at the International Conference on Photonics in Switching, Sapporo, Japan, August 2008, invited paper S-03-5.

Weiner, A. M.

Wu, B.

B. Wu, A. Agrawal, I. Glesk, E. Narimanov, S. Etemad, and P. Prucnal, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CFF5.

Young, J.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

K. Vahala, R. Paiella, and G. Hunziker, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 3, 698 (1997).

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

J. Opt. Netw. (1)

Other (5)

B. Schneier, Applied Cryptography, 2nd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 1996).

B. Wu, A. Agrawal, I. Glesk, E. Narimanov, S. Etemad, and P. Prucnal, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CFF5.

M. P. Fok and P. R. Prucnal, in IEEE/LEOS Annual Meeting (2008), paper ThG 3.

M. P. Fok, K. Kravtsov, Y. Deng, Z. Wang, T. Wang, and P. R. Prucnal, presented at the International Conference on Photonics in Switching, Sapporo, Japan, August 2008, invited paper S-03-5.

C. W. Son, Y. J. Jung, S. Lee, J. H. Kim, S. K. Gil, and N. K. Park, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Lasers and Electro-Optics/Pacific Rim (2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of all-optical encryption with wavelength switching modulation: LD, laser diode; PolM, polarization modulator; Bi-NLF, highly nonlinear bismuth-oxide fiber; BPF, optical bandpass filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Logic table of the dual-pump FWM-based optical encryption. (b) Illustration of the wavelength transformation during the encryption process showing the increase in the effective key length of the encrypted data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Demodulated temporal profiles: (a) KEY with pattern of 01011001, (b) KEY# that is orthogonal with KEY, (c) data with pattern 00101011.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical spectra: (a) FWM output, (b) filtered output of the interleaved waveband-switching encrypted signal, (c) filtered output of the encrypted signal using KEY, (d) filtered output of the encrypted signal using KEY#, and (e) reconverted encrypted signal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal profiles: (a) XOR output, (b) NXOR output, (c) encrypted signal with interleaved waveband-switching modulation, and (d) encrypted signal after decoding.

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