Abstract

We report on the development of a new class of widely tunable resonant single-sideband electro-optical modulators based on interaction of different mode families of a crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator with an externally applied rf field. The tunability comes from the different response of mode families to either the temperature change or the voltage applied to the resonator.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photonics 1, 319 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 3930, 154 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. V. S. Ilchenko and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 4270, 120 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1600 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, lanl.arXiv.org>physics>arXiv:0806.3239.
  7. M. Izutsu, S. Shikama, and T. Sueta, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2225 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, Electron. Lett. 33, 74 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1410 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. McAdams, E. Peral, D. Provenzano, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 879 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Murata, K. Kaneda, and Y. Okamura, in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2004 (CLEO2004) (2004), paper CThT10.
  13. T. Kawanishi and M. Izutsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1534 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. S. Yan, C. Yu, Y. Wang, T. Luo, L. Paraschis, Y. Shi, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1322 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H.-K. Sung, E. K. Lau, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1005 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H.-S. Jung, H. F. Taylor, and O. Eknoyan, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1452 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photonics 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Sung, E. K. Lau, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

L. S. Yan, C. Yu, Y. Wang, T. Luo, L. Paraschis, Y. Shi, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Kawanishi and M. Izutsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

V. S. Ilchenko and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 4270, 120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 3930, 154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, Electron. Lett. 33, 74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1410 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. McAdams, E. Peral, D. Provenzano, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 879 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

H.-S. Jung, H. F. Taylor, and O. Eknoyan, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1452 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. Izutsu, S. Shikama, and T. Sueta, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, Z.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, Electron. Lett. 33, 74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1410 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Attanasio, D. V.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bossi, D. E.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Byrd, J.

V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, lanl.arXiv.org>physics>arXiv:0806.3239.

Capmany, J.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photonics 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eknoyan, O.

H.-S. Jung, H. F. Taylor, and O. Eknoyan, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1452 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, D. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hallemeier, P. F.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ilchenko, V. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 4270, 120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 3930, 154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, lanl.arXiv.org>physics>arXiv:0806.3239.

Izutsu, M.

T. Kawanishi and M. Izutsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Izutsu, S. Shikama, and T. Sueta, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H.-S.

H.-S. Jung, H. F. Taylor, and O. Eknoyan, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1452 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kaneda, K.

H. Murata, K. Kaneda, and Y. Okamura, in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2004 (CLEO2004) (2004), paper CThT10.

Kawanishi, T.

T. Kawanishi and M. Izutsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kissa, K. M.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kubodera, K.

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lafaw, D. A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lau, E. K.

H.-K. Sung, E. K. Lau, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, T.

L. S. Yan, C. Yu, Y. Wang, T. Luo, L. Paraschis, Y. Shi, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maack, D.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maleki, L.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 4270, 120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 3930, 154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, lanl.arXiv.org>physics>arXiv:0806.3239.

Marshall, W. K.

M. McAdams, E. Peral, D. Provenzano, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 879 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, lanl.arXiv.org>physics>arXiv:0806.3239.

McAdams, M.

M. McAdams, E. Peral, D. Provenzano, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 879 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McBrien, G. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mitsugi, N.

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Murata, H.

H. Murata, K. Kaneda, and Y. Okamura, in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2004 (CLEO2004) (2004), paper CThT10.

Murphy, E. J.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photonics 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, Electron. Lett. 33, 74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1410 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oikawa, S.

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okamura, Y.

H. Murata, K. Kaneda, and Y. Okamura, in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2004 (CLEO2004) (2004), paper CThT10.

Paraschis, L.

L. S. Yan, C. Yu, Y. Wang, T. Luo, L. Paraschis, Y. Shi, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peral, E.

M. McAdams, E. Peral, D. Provenzano, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 879 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Provenzano, D.

M. McAdams, E. Peral, D. Provenzano, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 879 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saitou, T.

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Savchenkov, A. A.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, lanl.arXiv.org>physics>arXiv:0806.3239.

Seidel, D.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, lanl.arXiv.org>physics>arXiv:0806.3239.

Shi, Y.

L. S. Yan, C. Yu, Y. Wang, T. Luo, L. Paraschis, Y. Shi, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shikama, S.

M. Izutsu, S. Shikama, and T. Sueta, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsu, S.

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. H.

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, Electron. Lett. 33, 74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1410 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Solomatine, I.

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sueta, T.

M. Izutsu, S. Shikama, and T. Sueta, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sung, H.-K.

H.-K. Sung, E. K. Lau, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, H. F.

H.-S. Jung, H. F. Taylor, and O. Eknoyan, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1452 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

L. S. Yan, C. Yu, Y. Wang, T. Luo, L. Paraschis, Y. Shi, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

L. S. Yan, C. Yu, Y. Wang, T. Luo, L. Paraschis, Y. Shi, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wooten, E. L.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

H.-K. Sung, E. K. Lau, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, L. S.

L. S. Yan, C. Yu, Y. Wang, T. Luo, L. Paraschis, Y. Shi, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X. S.

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 3930, 154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

M. McAdams, E. Peral, D. Provenzano, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 879 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yi-Yan, A.

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

L. S. Yan, C. Yu, Y. Wang, T. Luo, L. Paraschis, Y. Shi, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. McAdams, E. Peral, D. Provenzano, W. K. Marshall, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 879 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, Electron. Lett. 33, 74 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Izutsu, S. Shikama, and T. Sueta, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 2225 (1981).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. L. Wooten, K. M. Kissa, A. Yi-Yan, E. J. Murphy, D. A. Lafaw, P. F. Hallemeier, D. Maack, D. V. Attanasio, D. J. Fritz, G. J. McBrien, and D. E. Bossi, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 69 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

V. S. Ilchenko, A. A. Savchenkov, I. Solomatine, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawanishi and M. Izutsu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1534 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Yan, C. Yu, Y. Wang, T. Luo, L. Paraschis, Y. Shi, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1322 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Sung, E. K. Lau, and M. C. Wu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Shimotsu, S. Oikawa, T. Saitou, N. Mitsugi, K. Kubodera, T. Kawanishi, and M. Izutsu, IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 13, 364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

G. H. Smith, D. Novak, and Z. Ahmed, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1410 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

H.-S. Jung, H. F. Taylor, and O. Eknoyan, J. Lightwave Technol. 8, 1452 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, Nat. Photonics 1, 319 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

V. S. Ilchenko, X. S. Yao, and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 3930, 154 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Ilchenko and L. Maleki, Proc. SPIE 4270, 120 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

V. S. Ilchenko, J. Byrd, A. A. Savchenkov, D. Seidel, A. B. Matsko, and L. Maleki, lanl.arXiv.org>physics>arXiv:0806.3239.

H. Murata, K. Kaneda, and Y. Okamura, in Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics 2004 (CLEO2004) (2004), paper CThT10.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. Inset shows the actual WGM resonator with coupling prism and rf electrode attached.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental demonstration of the performance of the SSB modulator. (a) Spectrum of the light exiting the modulator. Only one sideband is present. Inset, spectrum of the rf return of the optical signal demodulated on a fast photodiode showing the resonant modulation frequency ( 17.16 GHz ) and the spectral width ( 20 MHz ) . The angle of the polarizer installed after the resonator (Fig. 1) is selected such that the rf return power is maximized. (b) Optical spectrum shown in (a) with the polarizer installed after the resonator tuned ± 45 ° with respect to the position selected to obtain (a). Hence, the carrier and the sideband are polarized orthogonally. (c) Optical spectrum of the WGM resonator showing the modes involved with the modulation process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Demonstration of the saturation of the modulator using the signal from a slow photodiode. The power absorption resulting from the interference of the pumping light and the light exiting the resonator decreases when the rf field is applied.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Demonstration of the tunability of the modulator. Spectrum shift of the rf return of the optical signal demodulated on a fast photodiode with (a) 1° temperature change and (b) stepwise 2.5 V dc bias changes ( 47.5 V total span).

Metrics