Abstract

An optimized graded-refractive-index (GRIN) antireflection (AR) coating with broadband and omnidirectional characteristics—as desired for solar cell applications—designed by a genetic algorithm is presented. The optimized three-layer GRIN AR coating consists of a dense TiO2 and two nanoporous SiO2 layers fabricated using oblique-angle deposition. The normal incidence reflectance of the three-layer GRIN AR coating averaged between 400 and 700nm is 3.9%, which is 37% lower than that of a conventional single-layer Si3N4 coating. Furthermore, measured reflection over the 410740nm range and wide incident angles 40°–80° is reduced by 73% in comparison with the single-layer Si3N4 coating, clearly showing enhanced omnidirectionality and broadband characteristics of the optimized three-layer GRIN AR coating.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. J. Rayleigh, Proc. London Math. Soc. 11, 51 (1880).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. H. Southwell, Opt. Lett. 8, 584 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Poitras and J. A. Dobrowolski, Appl. Opt. 43, 1286 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Chen, H. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S.-Y. Lin, J.-Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. R. Kennedy and M. J. Brett, Appl. Opt. 42, 4573 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).
  7. J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, J. Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M.-L. Kuo, D. J. Poxson, Y. S. Kim, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and S.-Y. Lin, Opt. Lett. 33, 2527 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. F. Schubert, F. W. Mont, S. Chhajed, D. J. Poxson, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Opt. Express 16, 5290 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. H. Hect, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002), p. 429.
  11. D. J. Poxson, F. W. Mont, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101914 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, J. Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Kuo, D. J. Poxson, Y. S. Kim, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and S.-Y. Lin, Opt. Lett. 33, 2527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Schubert, F. W. Mont, S. Chhajed, D. J. Poxson, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Opt. Express 16, 5290 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Poxson, F. W. Mont, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

M. Chen, H. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S.-Y. Lin, J.-Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

1983 (1)

1880 (1)

S. J. Rayleigh, Proc. London Math. Soc. 11, 51 (1880).
[CrossRef]

Brett, M. J.

Chang, A. S. P.

Chang, H.

Chen, M.

M. Chen, H. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S.-Y. Lin, J.-Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Chhajed, S.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, J. Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, F. W. Mont, S. Chhajed, D. J. Poxson, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Opt. Express 16, 5290 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, J.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, J. Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, J. Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Fischer, A. J.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, J. Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hect, E. H.

E. H. Hect, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002), p. 429.

Kennedy, S. R.

Kim, H.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, J. Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

M.-L. Kuo, D. J. Poxson, Y. S. Kim, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and S.-Y. Lin, Opt. Lett. 33, 2527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, J. Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Poxson, F. W. Mont, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, F. W. Mont, S. Chhajed, D. J. Poxson, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Opt. Express 16, 5290 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Kim, Y. S.

Kuo, M.-L.

Lin, S.-Y.

Liu, W.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Mont, F. W.

Poitras, D.

Poxson, D. J.

Rayleigh, S. J.

S. J. Rayleigh, Proc. London Math. Soc. 11, 51 (1880).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

M.-L. Kuo, D. J. Poxson, Y. S. Kim, F. W. Mont, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, and S.-Y. Lin, Opt. Lett. 33, 2527 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, J. Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, F. W. Mont, S. Chhajed, D. J. Poxson, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Opt. Express 16, 5290 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Poxson, F. W. Mont, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

M. Chen, H. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S.-Y. Lin, J.-Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schubert, M. F.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, J. Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Poxson, F. W. Mont, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, F. W. Mont, S. Chhajed, D. J. Poxson, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Opt. Express 16, 5290 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Smart, J. A.

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, J. Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Southwell, W. H.

Xi, J.-Q.

M. Chen, H. Chang, A. S. P. Chang, S.-Y. Lin, J.-Q. Xi, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Opt. 46, 6533 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. J. Poxson, F. W. Mont, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, and E. F. Schubert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 101914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Adv. Mater. (1)

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, J. Adv. Mater. 20, 801 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J.-Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, Nat. Photonics 1, 176 (2007).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. London Math. Soc. (1)

S. J. Rayleigh, Proc. London Math. Soc. 11, 51 (1880).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

E. H. Hect, Optics (Addison-Wesley, 2002), p. 429.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulated reflection characteristics of AR coatings. (a) Traditional single-layer quarter-wave AR coating, (b) Zn S Mg F 2 bilayer AR coating, (c) continuous quintic AR coating, and (d) three-layer GRIN AR coating as a function of wavelength and incident angle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM with a tilt angle of 44° of three-layer GRIN AR coating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the quarter-wave AR coating versus the three-layer GRIN AR coating over angle of incidence 40°–80° and wavelength range 410 740 nm .

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Thickness and Refractive Index of Each Layer in the Optimized Three-Layer GRIN AR Coating, Designed by Genetic Algorithm, and Measured by Ellipsometry After Fabrication

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R ave = 1 λ 2 λ 1 2 π λ 1 λ 2 0 π 2 R TE ( λ , θ ) + R TM ( λ , θ ) 2 d θ d λ ,

Metrics