Abstract

We report on a series of experiments on the dynamics of spontaneous emission controlled nanolasers. The laser cavity is a photonic-crystal slab cavity, embedding self-assembled quantum dots as gain material. The implementation of cavity electrodynamics effects increases the large signal modulation bandwidth significantly, with measured modulation speeds of the order of 10GHz while keeping an extinction ratio of 19dB. A linear transient wavelength shift is reported, corresponding to a chirp of less than 100 pm for a 35ps laser pulse. We observe that the chirp characteristics are independent of the repetition rate of the laser up to 10GHz.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nature Mater. 4, 207 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. M. Ulrich, C. Gies, S. Ates, J. Wiersig, S. Reitzenstein, C. Hofmann, A. Löffler, A. Forchel, F. Jahnke, and P. Michler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043906 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, and G. Björk, Phys. Rev. A 44, 657 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Altug, D. Englund, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Phys. 2, 484 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Englund, H. Altug, and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071124 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Ellis, I. Fushman, D. Englund, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Braive, L. LeGratiet, S. Guillet, G. Patriarche, A. Miard, A. Beveratos, I. Robert-Philip, and I. Sagnes, (submitted to J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B).
  9. Z. G. Xie, S. Götzinger, W. Fang, H. Cao, and G. S. Solomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 117401 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Gies, J. Wiersig, and F. Jahnke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 067401 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Koyama and Y. Suematsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 292 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Melnik, G. Huyet, and A. Uskov, Opt. Express 14, 2950 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Muszalski, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and B. Corbett, Electron. Lett. 40, 428 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Markus, J. X. Chen, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, J.-G. Provost, C. Paranthoën, and A. Fiore, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1308 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

C. Gies, J. Wiersig, and F. Jahnke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 067401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

D. Englund, H. Altug, and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellis, I. Fushman, D. Englund, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Xie, S. Götzinger, W. Fang, H. Cao, and G. S. Solomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 117401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Ulrich, C. Gies, S. Ates, J. Wiersig, S. Reitzenstein, C. Hofmann, A. Löffler, A. Forchel, F. Jahnke, and P. Michler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Altug, D. Englund, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Phys. 2, 484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Melnik, G. Huyet, and A. Uskov, Opt. Express 14, 2950 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nature Mater. 4, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Muszalski, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and B. Corbett, Electron. Lett. 40, 428 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Markus, J. X. Chen, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, J.-G. Provost, C. Paranthoën, and A. Fiore, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, and G. Björk, Phys. Rev. A 44, 657 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

F. Koyama and Y. Suematsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 292 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nature Mater. 4, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Altug, H.

D. Englund, H. Altug, and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Altug, D. Englund, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Phys. 2, 484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L. C.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nature Mater. 4, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ates, S.

S. M. Ulrich, C. Gies, S. Ates, J. Wiersig, S. Reitzenstein, C. Hofmann, A. Löffler, A. Forchel, F. Jahnke, and P. Michler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badolato, A.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beveratos, A.

R. Braive, L. LeGratiet, S. Guillet, G. Patriarche, A. Miard, A. Beveratos, I. Robert-Philip, and I. Sagnes, (submitted to J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B).

Björk, G.

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, and G. Björk, Phys. Rev. A 44, 657 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouwmeester, D.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braive, R.

R. Braive, L. LeGratiet, S. Guillet, G. Patriarche, A. Miard, A. Beveratos, I. Robert-Philip, and I. Sagnes, (submitted to J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B).

Cao, H.

Z. G. Xie, S. Götzinger, W. Fang, H. Cao, and G. S. Solomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 117401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, J. X.

A. Markus, J. X. Chen, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, J.-G. Provost, C. Paranthoën, and A. Fiore, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y.-S.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corbett, B.

J. Muszalski, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and B. Corbett, Electron. Lett. 40, 428 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, B.

B. Ellis, I. Fushman, D. Englund, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Englund, D.

D. Englund, H. Altug, and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellis, I. Fushman, D. Englund, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Altug, D. Englund, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Phys. 2, 484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, W.

Z. G. Xie, S. Götzinger, W. Fang, H. Cao, and G. S. Solomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 117401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiore, A.

A. Markus, J. X. Chen, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, J.-G. Provost, C. Paranthoën, and A. Fiore, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

S. M. Ulrich, C. Gies, S. Ates, J. Wiersig, S. Reitzenstein, C. Hofmann, A. Löffler, A. Forchel, F. Jahnke, and P. Michler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fushman, I.

B. Ellis, I. Fushman, D. Englund, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier-Lafaye, O.

A. Markus, J. X. Chen, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, J.-G. Provost, C. Paranthoën, and A. Fiore, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gies, C.

C. Gies, J. Wiersig, and F. Jahnke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 067401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Ulrich, C. Gies, S. Ates, J. Wiersig, S. Reitzenstein, C. Hofmann, A. Löffler, A. Forchel, F. Jahnke, and P. Michler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, S.

Z. G. Xie, S. Götzinger, W. Fang, H. Cao, and G. S. Solomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 117401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guillet, S.

R. Braive, L. LeGratiet, S. Guillet, G. Patriarche, A. Miard, A. Beveratos, I. Robert-Philip, and I. Sagnes, (submitted to J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B).

Hennessy, K.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann, C.

S. M. Ulrich, C. Gies, S. Ates, J. Wiersig, S. Reitzenstein, C. Hofmann, A. Löffler, A. Forchel, F. Jahnke, and P. Michler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houlihan, J.

J. Muszalski, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and B. Corbett, Electron. Lett. 40, 428 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huyet, G.

S. Melnik, G. Huyet, and A. Uskov, Opt. Express 14, 2950 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Muszalski, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and B. Corbett, Electron. Lett. 40, 428 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jahnke, F.

C. Gies, J. Wiersig, and F. Jahnke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 067401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Ulrich, C. Gies, S. Ates, J. Wiersig, S. Reitzenstein, C. Hofmann, A. Löffler, A. Forchel, F. Jahnke, and P. Michler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koyama, F.

F. Koyama and Y. Suematsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 292 (1985).
[CrossRef]

LeGratiet, L.

R. Braive, L. LeGratiet, S. Guillet, G. Patriarche, A. Miard, A. Beveratos, I. Robert-Philip, and I. Sagnes, (submitted to J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B).

Löffler, A.

S. M. Ulrich, C. Gies, S. Ates, J. Wiersig, S. Reitzenstein, C. Hofmann, A. Löffler, A. Forchel, F. Jahnke, and P. Michler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Machida, S.

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, and G. Björk, Phys. Rev. A 44, 657 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markus, A.

A. Markus, J. X. Chen, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, J.-G. Provost, C. Paranthoën, and A. Fiore, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Melnik, S.

Miard, A.

R. Braive, L. LeGratiet, S. Guillet, G. Patriarche, A. Miard, A. Beveratos, I. Robert-Philip, and I. Sagnes, (submitted to J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B).

Michler, P.

S. M. Ulrich, C. Gies, S. Ates, J. Wiersig, S. Reitzenstein, C. Hofmann, A. Löffler, A. Forchel, F. Jahnke, and P. Michler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muszalski, J.

J. Muszalski, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and B. Corbett, Electron. Lett. 40, 428 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nature Mater. 4, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paranthoën, C.

A. Markus, J. X. Chen, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, J.-G. Provost, C. Paranthoën, and A. Fiore, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patriarche, G.

R. Braive, L. LeGratiet, S. Guillet, G. Patriarche, A. Miard, A. Beveratos, I. Robert-Philip, and I. Sagnes, (submitted to J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B).

Petroff, P. M.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Provost, J.-G.

A. Markus, J. X. Chen, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, J.-G. Provost, C. Paranthoën, and A. Fiore, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rakher, M. T.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reitzenstein, S.

S. M. Ulrich, C. Gies, S. Ates, J. Wiersig, S. Reitzenstein, C. Hofmann, A. Löffler, A. Forchel, F. Jahnke, and P. Michler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robert-Philip, I.

R. Braive, L. LeGratiet, S. Guillet, G. Patriarche, A. Miard, A. Beveratos, I. Robert-Philip, and I. Sagnes, (submitted to J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B).

Sagnes, I.

R. Braive, L. LeGratiet, S. Guillet, G. Patriarche, A. Miard, A. Beveratos, I. Robert-Philip, and I. Sagnes, (submitted to J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B).

Solomon, G. S.

Z. G. Xie, S. Götzinger, W. Fang, H. Cao, and G. S. Solomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 117401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, B.-S.

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nature Mater. 4, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Strauf, S.

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suematsu, Y.

F. Koyama and Y. Suematsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 292 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, S. M.

S. M. Ulrich, C. Gies, S. Ates, J. Wiersig, S. Reitzenstein, C. Hofmann, A. Löffler, A. Forchel, F. Jahnke, and P. Michler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uskov, A.

Vuckovic, J.

B. Ellis, I. Fushman, D. Englund, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, H. Altug, and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Altug, D. Englund, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Phys. 2, 484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wiersig, J.

C. Gies, J. Wiersig, and F. Jahnke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 067401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Ulrich, C. Gies, S. Ates, J. Wiersig, S. Reitzenstein, C. Hofmann, A. Löffler, A. Forchel, F. Jahnke, and P. Michler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, Z. G.

Z. G. Xie, S. Götzinger, W. Fang, H. Cao, and G. S. Solomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 117401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

B. Ellis, I. Fushman, D. Englund, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, and G. Björk, Phys. Rev. A 44, 657 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

B. Ellis, I. Fushman, D. Englund, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Englund, H. Altug, and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 071124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ellis, I. Fushman, D. Englund, B. Zhang, Y. Yamamoto, and J. Vuckovic, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 151102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. Muszalski, J. Houlihan, G. Huyet, and B. Corbett, Electron. Lett. 40, 428 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Koyama and Y. Suematsu, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21, 292 (1985).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Markus, J. X. Chen, O. Gauthier-Lafaye, J.-G. Provost, C. Paranthoën, and A. Fiore, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 1308 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

H. Altug, D. Englund, and J. Vuckovic, Nat. Phys. 2, 484 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mater. (1)

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, Nature Mater. 4, 207 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Y. Yamamoto, S. Machida, and G. Björk, Phys. Rev. A 44, 657 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. Strauf, K. Hennessy, M. T. Rakher, Y.-S. Choi, A. Badolato, L. C. Andreani, E. L. Hu, P. M. Petroff, and D. Bouwmeester, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 127404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Ulrich, C. Gies, S. Ates, J. Wiersig, S. Reitzenstein, C. Hofmann, A. Löffler, A. Forchel, F. Jahnke, and P. Michler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. G. Xie, S. Götzinger, W. Fang, H. Cao, and G. S. Solomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 117401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Gies, J. Wiersig, and F. Jahnke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 067401 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. Braive, L. LeGratiet, S. Guillet, G. Patriarche, A. Miard, A. Beveratos, I. Robert-Philip, and I. Sagnes, (submitted to J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left, Laser spectrum of the cavity for an excitation power of 7.76 μ J cm 2 ( 1.7 × P th ) measured onto the surface sample. Right, integrated output intensity as a function of the excitation power. Full circles, experimental data; solid curve, rate-equation model solution corresponding to β of 0.67.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Time-resolved optical emission from the photonic crystal cavity, (top) below the laser threshold ( P 0.5 P th = 2.1 μ J cm 2 ) , (bottom) above the laser threshold ( P 5 P th = 22 μ J cm 2 ) . The circles represent the relative wavelength shift of the spectral maximum intensity as a function of time. The curve corresponds to a fit by Eq. (1). The vertical dashed lines represent the temporal position of the laser excitation pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temporal and spectral response of the laser cavity excited by two 3 ps pulses separated by 100 ps . The temporal positions of the excitation pulses are indicated by vertical dashed lines. The excitation power is set to 5 P th . The chirp has been measured, when the device is excited by only the first (triangles), only the second (squares), or both excitation pulses (circles).

Equations (1)

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δ λ ( t ) = α λ 2 2 π c ( t ( Δ τ ( 2 ln 2 ) ) 2 + β N th 2 τ sp P . e ( t Δ τ ( 2 ln 2 ) ) 2 ) ,

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