Abstract

We demonstrate a new simultaneous normalized detection technique for fluorescence detection of ultracold atoms in a superposition of ground-state hyperfine levels. Using this technique we observe atom shot-noise limited detection signal-to-noise ratios in excess of 7800:1 per shot and 14400:1 in 1s.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Peters, K. Y. Chung, and S. Chu, Nature 400, 849 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. L. Gustavson, P. Bouyer, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2046 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. M. McGuirk, G. T. Foster, J. B. Fixler, M. J. Snadden, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033608 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. M. McGuirk, G. T. Foster, J. B. Fixler, and M. A. Kasevich, Opt. Lett. 26, 364 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. See for instance N. Ramsey, Molecular Beam Spectroscopy (Clarendon, 1956).
  8. This technique suppresses the influence of microwave power fluctuations during the clock sequence.
  9. J. H. Shirley, Opt. Lett. 7, 537 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Bize, Y. Sortais, P. Lemonde, S. Zhang, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, C. Salomon, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1253 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. M. McGuirk, G. T. Foster, J. B. Fixler, M. J. Snadden, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

S. Bize, Y. Sortais, P. Lemonde, S. Zhang, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, C. Salomon, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1253 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Peters, K. Y. Chung, and S. Chu, Nature 400, 849 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. L. Gustavson, P. Bouyer, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2046 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

1956 (1)

See for instance N. Ramsey, Molecular Beam Spectroscopy (Clarendon, 1956).

Abgrall, M.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bize, S.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Bize, Y. Sortais, P. Lemonde, S. Zhang, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, C. Salomon, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1253 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bollinger, J. J.

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouyer, P.

T. L. Gustavson, P. Bouyer, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2046 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cacciapuoti, L.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.

G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

A. Peters, K. Y. Chung, and S. Chu, Nature 400, 849 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chung, K. Y.

A. Peters, K. Y. Chung, and S. Chu, Nature 400, 849 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Bize, Y. Sortais, P. Lemonde, S. Zhang, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, C. Salomon, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1253 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fixler, J. B.

J. M. McGuirk, G. T. Foster, J. B. Fixler, M. J. Snadden, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. McGuirk, G. T. Foster, J. B. Fixler, and M. A. Kasevich, Opt. Lett. 26, 364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Foster, G. T.

J. M. McGuirk, G. T. Foster, J. B. Fixler, M. J. Snadden, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. McGuirk, G. T. Foster, J. B. Fixler, and M. A. Kasevich, Opt. Lett. 26, 364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gilligan, J. M.

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grnert, J.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gustavson, T. L.

T. L. Gustavson, P. Bouyer, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2046 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heinzen, D. J.

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itano, W. M.

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasevich, M. A.

J. M. McGuirk, G. T. Foster, J. B. Fixler, M. J. Snadden, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. McGuirk, G. T. Foster, J. B. Fixler, and M. A. Kasevich, Opt. Lett. 26, 364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Gustavson, P. Bouyer, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2046 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, P.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Bize, Y. Sortais, P. Lemonde, S. Zhang, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, C. Salomon, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1253 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, Ph.

G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lemonde, P.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Bize, Y. Sortais, P. Lemonde, S. Zhang, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, C. Salomon, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1253 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luiten, A.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luiten, A. N.

G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maksimovic, I.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mann, A. G.

G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marion, H.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McGuirk, J. M.

J. M. McGuirk, G. T. Foster, J. B. Fixler, M. J. Snadden, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. McGuirk, G. T. Foster, J. B. Fixler, and M. A. Kasevich, Opt. Lett. 26, 364 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moore, F. L.

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pereira dos Santos, F.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peters, A.

A. Peters, K. Y. Chung, and S. Chu, Nature 400, 849 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raizen, M. G.

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramsey, N.

See for instance N. Ramsey, Molecular Beam Spectroscopy (Clarendon, 1956).

Rosenbusch, P.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salomon, C.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Bize, Y. Sortais, P. Lemonde, S. Zhang, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, C. Salomon, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1253 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Bize, Y. Sortais, P. Lemonde, S. Zhang, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, C. Salomon, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1253 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shirley, J. H.

Snadden, M. J.

J. M. McGuirk, G. T. Foster, J. B. Fixler, M. J. Snadden, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sortais, Y.

S. Bize, Y. Sortais, P. Lemonde, S. Zhang, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, C. Salomon, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1253 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tobar, M.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vian, C.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wineland, D. J.

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, P.

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Bize, Y. Sortais, P. Lemonde, S. Zhang, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, C. Salomon, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1253 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (1)

S. Bize, Y. Sortais, P. Lemonde, S. Zhang, P. Laurent, G. Santarelli, C. Salomon, and A. Clairon, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 47, 1253 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

S. Bize, P. Laurent, M. Abgrall, H. Marion, I. Maksimovic, L. Cacciapuoti, J. Grnert, C. Vian, F. Pereira dos Santos, P. Rosenbusch, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, P. Wolf, A. Clairon, A. Luiten, M. Tobar, and C. Salomon, J. Phys. B 38, S449 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Peters, K. Y. Chung, and S. Chu, Nature 400, 849 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. M. McGuirk, G. T. Foster, J. B. Fixler, M. J. Snadden, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. A 65, 033608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, J. J. Bollinger, J. M. Gilligan, D. J. Heinzen, F. L. Moore, M. G. Raizen, and D. J. Wineland, Phys. Rev. A 47, 3554 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

T. L. Gustavson, P. Bouyer, and M. A. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2046 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Santarelli, Ph. Laurent, P. Lemonde, A. Clairon, A. G. Mann, S. Chang, A. N. Luiten, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4619 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

See for instance N. Ramsey, Molecular Beam Spectroscopy (Clarendon, 1956).

This technique suppresses the influence of microwave power fluctuations during the clock sequence.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Depiction of the setup. An inverted image of the F = 4 and F = 3 atoms is projected onto opposite quadrants of the detector. (b) Negative CCD image of the spatially separated F = 3 and F = 4 atoms.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Raw clock fringe signals from a typical π 2 π 2 Ramsey sequence with T = 50 μ s . (b) Normalized transition probability from F = 3 to F = 4 state. Normalization removes shot-to-shot atom number fluctuations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Segment of normalized F = 4 signals from each clock recorded with a 5.1 Hz repetition rate. The difference between the normalized signals Δ P 4 is shown in (b). (c) Two-sample Allan deviation for this set gives σ Δ P = 1.81 × 10 4 rms per shot, corresponding to a cross-clock SNR of 5540:1 or 7830:1 per clock. The present 10 2 s limit to the long-term stability may be increased by improving the current microwave delivery system that imposes uncommon noise in the two clocks.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SNR is measured as a function of atom number by varying the trap loading time. The measured N ̃ 1 2 dependence suggests that the detection system is limited by atom shot-noise scaling. Background noise dominates below 10 6 atoms. The line is an estimate of the quantum projection-noise limited SNR ( 2 N ̃ 1 2 ) .

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