Abstract

An approach is proposed to generating return-to-zero (RZ) and carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CS-RZ) pulse trains with a high and tunable repetition rate by using a polarization modulator (PolM). The PolM is a special phase modulator that can support both TE and TM modes with opposite phase modulation indices. A linearly polarized cw light with its polarization state oriented with an angle of 45° to one principal axis of the PolM is modulated by a sinusoidal signal at the PolM. The output light from the PolM is then sent to a polarization beam splitter (PBS), with one axis of the PBS aligned at an angle of 45° to one principle axis of the PolM. At the two outputs of the PBS, two optical signals with one consisting of the even-order optical sidebands and the other consisting of the odd-order optical sidebands are obtained, leading to the generation of an RZ and a CS-RZ pulse train having a repetition rate that is twice the frequency of the drive sinusoidal signal. The proposed approach is demonstrated by a proof-of-concept experiment in which an RZ and a CS-RZ pulse train with tunable repetition rates of 7.2 and 8GHz are generated.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, D. Coerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2004) (Optical Society of America, 2004), postdeadline paper PDP35.

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A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, D. Coerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2004) (Optical Society of America, 2004), postdeadline paper PDP35.

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A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, D. Coerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2004) (Optical Society of America, 2004), postdeadline paper PDP35.

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J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid, and P. Ghanipour, Proc. SPIE 5577, 133 (2004).
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Ghanipour, P.

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid, and P. Ghanipour, Proc. SPIE 5577, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, D. Coerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2004) (Optical Society of America, 2004), postdeadline paper PDP35.

Guest, A.

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, D. Coerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2004) (Optical Society of America, 2004), postdeadline paper PDP35.

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Jaeger, N. A. F.

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid, and P. Ghanipour, Proc. SPIE 5577, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, D. Coerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2004) (Optical Society of America, 2004), postdeadline paper PDP35.

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Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2733 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, I.

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, D. Coerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2004) (Optical Society of America, 2004), postdeadline paper PDP35.

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J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid, and P. Ghanipour, Proc. SPIE 5577, 133 (2004).
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J. J. Veselka and S. K. Korotky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Leaird, D. E.

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2733 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

X. Wei, J. Leuthold, and L. Zhang, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2004) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper WL6.

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, D. Coerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2004) (Optical Society of America, 2004), postdeadline paper PDP35.

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C. Yu, Z. Pan, T. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Christen, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Mandai, K.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mitomi, O.

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, H. Toba, K. Murata, and O. Mitomi, Electron. Lett. 35, 2041 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, D.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyamoto, Y.

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, H. Toba, K. Murata, and O. Mitomi, Electron. Lett. 35, 2041 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Murata, K.

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, H. Toba, K. Murata, and O. Mitomi, Electron. Lett. 35, 2041 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Muriel, M. A.

Ogasahara, D.

R. Ohhira, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2001) (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WM2.

Ohhira, R.

R. Ohhira, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2001) (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WM2.

Ono, T.

R. Ohhira, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2001) (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WM2.

Pan, Z.

C. Yu, Z. Pan, T. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Christen, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, S. Chandel, and C. Yu, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CFP2.
[PubMed]

Petropoulos, P.

Poggiolini, P.

Reid, A.

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid, and P. Ghanipour, Proc. SPIE 5577, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Rochette, M.

Sano, A.

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, H. Toba, K. Murata, and O. Mitomi, Electron. Lett. 35, 2041 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shioda, T.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, S.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Toba, H.

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, H. Toba, K. Murata, and O. Mitomi, Electron. Lett. 35, 2041 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, H.

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veselka, J. J.

J. J. Veselka and S. K. Korotky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

C. Yu, Z. Pan, T. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Christen, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X.

X. Wei, J. Leuthold, and L. Zhang, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2004) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper WL6.

Weiner, A. M.

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2733 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

C. Yu, Z. Pan, T. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Christen, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

P. J. Winzer and R. J. Essiambre, Proc. IEEE 94, 952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, D. Coerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2004) (Optical Society of America, 2004), postdeadline paper PDP35.

Yonenaga, K.

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, H. Toba, K. Murata, and O. Mitomi, Electron. Lett. 35, 2041 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

C. Yu, Z. Pan, T. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Christen, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, S. Chandel, and C. Yu, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CFP2.
[PubMed]

Zervas, M. N.

Zhang, L.

X. Wei, J. Leuthold, and L. Zhang, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2004) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper WL6.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Miyamoto, A. Hirano, K. Yonenaga, A. Sano, H. Toba, K. Murata, and O. Mitomi, Electron. Lett. 35, 2041 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. J. Veselka and S. K. Korotky, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 300 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

Z. Jiang, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2733 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Miyamoto, K. Mandai, T. Kurokawa, S. Takeda, T. Shioda, and H. Tsuda, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 721 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Yu, Z. Pan, T. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Christen, and A. E. Willner, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 42 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. J. Winzer and R. J. Essiambre, Proc. IEEE 94, 952 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, M. Fairburn, A. Reid, and P. Ghanipour, Proc. SPIE 5577, 133 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. H. Gnauck, J. Leuthold, C. Xie, I. Kang, S. Chandrasekhar, P. Bernasconi, D. Coerr, L. Buhl, J. D. Bull, N. A. F. Jaeger, H. Kato, and A. Guest, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2004) (Optical Society of America, 2004), postdeadline paper PDP35.

R. Ohhira, D. Ogasahara, and T. Ono, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2001) (Optical Society of America, 2001), paper WM2.

X. Wei, J. Leuthold, and L. Zhang, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC 2004) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper WL6.

Z. Pan, S. Chandel, and C. Yu, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CFP2.
[PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the proposed approach for RZ and CS-RZ pulse train generation. PC, polarization controller; PolM, polarization modulator; PBS, polarization beam splitter. (b) The distribution of odd- and even-order sidebands along the two principal axes of PBS.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulated pulse trains with a repetition rate of 80 GHz when the input microwave frequency is 40 GHz . (a) The RZ pulse train, (b) the CS-RZ pulse train.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimentally generated pulse trains with a repetition rate of 8 GHz : the spectra of (a) the RZ pulse train and (b) the CS-RZ pulse train, temporal waveforms of (c) the RZ pulse train and (d) the CS-RZ pulse train.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimentally generated pulse trains with a repetition rate of 7.2 GHz : the spectra of (a) the RZ pulse train and (b) the CS-RZ pulse train, temporal waveforms of (c) the RZ pulse train and (d) the CS-RZ pulse train

Equations (2)

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E x = cos [ ω t + β cos ( Ω t ) ] cos [ ω t β cos ( Ω t ) ] = k = + J 2 k + 1 ( π 2 ) cos [ ( ω + ( 2 k + 1 ) Ω ) t + ( 2 k + 1 ) π 2 ] ,
E y = cos [ ω t + β cos ( Ω t ) ] + cos [ ω t β cos ( Ω t ) ] = k = + J 2 k ( π 2 ) cos [ ( ω + 2 k Ω ) t + k π ] ,

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