Abstract

We present a reliable and robust integrated fluorescence detector capable of detecting single atoms. The detector consists of a tapered lensed single-mode fiber for precise delivery of excitation light and a multimode fiber to collect the fluorescence. Both are mounted in lithographically defined SU-8 holding structures on an atom chip. Rb87 atoms propagating freely in a magnetic guide are detected with an efficiency of up to 66%, and a signal-to-noise ratio in excess of 100 is obtained for short integration times.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Darquie, M. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Diedrich and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 203 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Bondo, M. Hennrich, T. Legero, G. Rempe, and A. Kuhn, Opt. Commun. 264, 271 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. Bowen, A. Parkins, T. Kippenberg, K. Valhala, and H. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. Münstermann, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, P. W. H. Pinkse, and G. Rempe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3791 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Wilzbach, A. Haase, M. Schwarz, D. Heine, K. Wicker, S. G. X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, T. Fernholz, B. Hessmo, and J. Schmiedmayer, Fortschr. Phys. 54, 746 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, M. Wilzbach, M. Schwarz, T. Fernholz, and J. Schmiedmayer, Appl. Opt. 44, 6857 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Wildermuth, P. Krüger, C. Becker, M. Brajdic, S. Haupt, A. Kasper, R. Folman, and J. Schmiedmayer, Phys. Rev. A 69, 030901 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Fortágh and C. Zimmermann, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 235 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Rev. Mod. Phys. 37, 231 (1965). To calculate the mean and variance we use pphoton(n)=∑m=0∞pat(m)(αm)nn!e−αm, where pat(m) is the probability to have m atoms in the considered time interval. Each atom emits on average α photons.
    [CrossRef]

2007 (3)

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, Nature 450, 272 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Trupke, J. Goldwin, B. Darquié, G. Dutier, S. Eriksson, J. Ashmore, and E. A. Hinds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Fortágh and C. Zimmermann, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

I. Teper, Y.-J. Lin, and V. Vuletić, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wilzbach, A. Haase, M. Schwarz, D. Heine, K. Wicker, S. G. X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, T. Fernholz, B. Hessmo, and J. Schmiedmayer, Fortschr. Phys. 54, 746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. Bowen, A. Parkins, T. Kippenberg, K. Valhala, and H. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bondo, M. Hennrich, T. Legero, G. Rempe, and A. Kuhn, Opt. Commun. 264, 271 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Haase, B. Hessmo, and J. Schmiedmayer, Opt. Lett. 31, 268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, M. Wilzbach, M. Schwarz, T. Fernholz, and J. Schmiedmayer, Appl. Opt. 44, 6857 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Darquie, M. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. Wildermuth, P. Krüger, C. Becker, M. Brajdic, S. Haupt, A. Kasper, R. Folman, and J. Schmiedmayer, Phys. Rev. A 69, 030901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Groth, P. Kruger, S. Wildermuth, R. Folman, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, D. Mahalu, and I. Bar-Joseph, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Münstermann, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, P. W. H. Pinkse, and G. Rempe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1987 (1)

F. Diedrich and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 203 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1965 (1)

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Rev. Mod. Phys. 37, 231 (1965). To calculate the mean and variance we use pphoton(n)=∑m=0∞pat(m)(αm)nn!e−αm, where pat(m) is the probability to have m atoms in the considered time interval. Each atom emits on average α photons.
[CrossRef]

Abraham, E. R.

Aoki, T.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. Bowen, A. Parkins, T. Kippenberg, K. Valhala, and H. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashmore, J.

M. Trupke, J. Goldwin, B. Darquié, G. Dutier, S. Eriksson, J. Ashmore, and E. A. Hinds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bar-Joseph, I.

S. Groth, P. Kruger, S. Wildermuth, R. Folman, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, D. Mahalu, and I. Bar-Joseph, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Becker, C.

S. Wildermuth, P. Krüger, C. Becker, M. Brajdic, S. Haupt, A. Kasper, R. Folman, and J. Schmiedmayer, Phys. Rev. A 69, 030901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bergamini, S.

B. Darquie, M. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beugnon, J.

B. Darquie, M. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blatt, R.

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bondo, T.

T. Bondo, M. Hennrich, T. Legero, G. Rempe, and A. Kuhn, Opt. Commun. 264, 271 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bowen, W.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. Bowen, A. Parkins, T. Kippenberg, K. Valhala, and H. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brajdic, M.

S. Wildermuth, P. Krüger, C. Becker, M. Brajdic, S. Haupt, A. Kasper, R. Folman, and J. Schmiedmayer, Phys. Rev. A 69, 030901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brenner, K.-H.

M. Wilzbach, A. Haase, M. Schwarz, D. Heine, K. Wicker, S. G. X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, T. Fernholz, B. Hessmo, and J. Schmiedmayer, Fortschr. Phys. 54, 746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, M. Wilzbach, M. Schwarz, T. Fernholz, and J. Schmiedmayer, Appl. Opt. 44, 6857 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Browaeys, A.

B. Darquie, M. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombe, Y.

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, Nature 450, 272 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornell, E. A.

Darquie, B.

B. Darquie, M. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Darquié, B.

M. Trupke, J. Goldwin, B. Darquié, G. Dutier, S. Eriksson, J. Ashmore, and E. A. Hinds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dayan, B.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. Bowen, A. Parkins, T. Kippenberg, K. Valhala, and H. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diedrich, F.

F. Diedrich and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 203 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dingjan, J.

B. Darquie, M. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubois, G.

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, Nature 450, 272 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutier, G.

M. Trupke, J. Goldwin, B. Darquié, G. Dutier, S. Eriksson, J. Ashmore, and E. A. Hinds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eriksson, S.

M. Trupke, J. Goldwin, B. Darquié, G. Dutier, S. Eriksson, J. Ashmore, and E. A. Hinds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esslinger, T.

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernholz, T.

M. Wilzbach, A. Haase, M. Schwarz, D. Heine, K. Wicker, S. G. X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, T. Fernholz, B. Hessmo, and J. Schmiedmayer, Fortschr. Phys. 54, 746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, M. Wilzbach, M. Schwarz, T. Fernholz, and J. Schmiedmayer, Appl. Opt. 44, 6857 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Groth, P. Kruger, S. Wildermuth, R. Folman, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, D. Mahalu, and I. Bar-Joseph, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, T.

P. Münstermann, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, P. W. H. Pinkse, and G. Rempe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Folman, R.

S. Groth, P. Kruger, S. Wildermuth, R. Folman, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, D. Mahalu, and I. Bar-Joseph, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wildermuth, P. Krüger, C. Becker, M. Brajdic, S. Haupt, A. Kasper, R. Folman, and J. Schmiedmayer, Phys. Rev. A 69, 030901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fortágh, J.

J. Fortágh and C. Zimmermann, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Goldwin, J.

M. Trupke, J. Goldwin, B. Darquié, G. Dutier, S. Eriksson, J. Ashmore, and E. A. Hinds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grangier, P.

B. Darquie, M. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groth, S.

S. Groth, P. Kruger, S. Wildermuth, R. Folman, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, D. Mahalu, and I. Bar-Joseph, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haase, A.

A. Haase, B. Hessmo, and J. Schmiedmayer, Opt. Lett. 31, 268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wilzbach, A. Haase, M. Schwarz, D. Heine, K. Wicker, S. G. X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, T. Fernholz, B. Hessmo, and J. Schmiedmayer, Fortschr. Phys. 54, 746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haupt, S.

S. Wildermuth, P. Krüger, C. Becker, M. Brajdic, S. Haupt, A. Kasper, R. Folman, and J. Schmiedmayer, Phys. Rev. A 69, 030901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heine, D.

M. Wilzbach, A. Haase, M. Schwarz, D. Heine, K. Wicker, S. G. X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, T. Fernholz, B. Hessmo, and J. Schmiedmayer, Fortschr. Phys. 54, 746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hennrich, M.

T. Bondo, M. Hennrich, T. Legero, G. Rempe, and A. Kuhn, Opt. Commun. 264, 271 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hessmo, B.

M. Wilzbach, A. Haase, M. Schwarz, D. Heine, K. Wicker, S. G. X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, T. Fernholz, B. Hessmo, and J. Schmiedmayer, Fortschr. Phys. 54, 746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Haase, B. Hessmo, and J. Schmiedmayer, Opt. Lett. 31, 268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hinds, E. A.

M. Trupke, J. Goldwin, B. Darquié, G. Dutier, S. Eriksson, J. Ashmore, and E. A. Hinds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunger, D.

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, Nature 450, 272 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, M.

B. Darquie, M. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasper, A.

S. Wildermuth, P. Krüger, C. Becker, M. Brajdic, S. Haupt, A. Kasper, R. Folman, and J. Schmiedmayer, Phys. Rev. A 69, 030901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. Bowen, A. Parkins, T. Kippenberg, K. Valhala, and H. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kippenberg, T.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. Bowen, A. Parkins, T. Kippenberg, K. Valhala, and H. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Köhl, M.

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruger, P.

S. Groth, P. Kruger, S. Wildermuth, R. Folman, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, D. Mahalu, and I. Bar-Joseph, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, P.

S. Wildermuth, P. Krüger, C. Becker, M. Brajdic, S. Haupt, A. Kasper, R. Folman, and J. Schmiedmayer, Phys. Rev. A 69, 030901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, A.

T. Bondo, M. Hennrich, T. Legero, G. Rempe, and A. Kuhn, Opt. Commun. 264, 271 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Legero, T.

T. Bondo, M. Hennrich, T. Legero, G. Rempe, and A. Kuhn, Opt. Commun. 264, 271 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leibfried, D.

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.-J.

I. Teper, Y.-J. Lin, and V. Vuletić, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linke, F.

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, Nature 450, 272 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S. G. X.

M. Wilzbach, A. Haase, M. Schwarz, D. Heine, K. Wicker, S. G. X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, T. Fernholz, B. Hessmo, and J. Schmiedmayer, Fortschr. Phys. 54, 746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Mahalu, D.

S. Groth, P. Kruger, S. Wildermuth, R. Folman, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, D. Mahalu, and I. Bar-Joseph, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, L.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Rev. Mod. Phys. 37, 231 (1965). To calculate the mean and variance we use pphoton(n)=∑m=0∞pat(m)(αm)nn!e−αm, where pat(m) is the probability to have m atoms in the considered time interval. Each atom emits on average α photons.
[CrossRef]

Maunz, P.

P. Münstermann, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, P. W. H. Pinkse, and G. Rempe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Messin, G.

B. Darquie, M. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monroe, C.

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Münstermann, P.

P. Münstermann, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, P. W. H. Pinkse, and G. Rempe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Öttl, A.

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parkins, A.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. Bowen, A. Parkins, T. Kippenberg, K. Valhala, and H. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinkse, P. W. H.

P. Münstermann, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, P. W. H. Pinkse, and G. Rempe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Reichel, J.

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, Nature 450, 272 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rempe, G.

T. Bondo, M. Hennrich, T. Legero, G. Rempe, and A. Kuhn, Opt. Commun. 264, 271 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Münstermann, T. Fischer, P. Maunz, P. W. H. Pinkse, and G. Rempe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, S.

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmiedmayer, J.

M. Wilzbach, A. Haase, M. Schwarz, D. Heine, K. Wicker, S. G. X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, T. Fernholz, B. Hessmo, and J. Schmiedmayer, Fortschr. Phys. 54, 746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Haase, B. Hessmo, and J. Schmiedmayer, Opt. Lett. 31, 268 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, M. Wilzbach, M. Schwarz, T. Fernholz, and J. Schmiedmayer, Appl. Opt. 44, 6857 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Groth, P. Kruger, S. Wildermuth, R. Folman, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, D. Mahalu, and I. Bar-Joseph, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wildermuth, P. Krüger, C. Becker, M. Brajdic, S. Haupt, A. Kasper, R. Folman, and J. Schmiedmayer, Phys. Rev. A 69, 030901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, M.

M. Wilzbach, A. Haase, M. Schwarz, D. Heine, K. Wicker, S. G. X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, T. Fernholz, B. Hessmo, and J. Schmiedmayer, Fortschr. Phys. 54, 746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, M. Wilzbach, M. Schwarz, T. Fernholz, and J. Schmiedmayer, Appl. Opt. 44, 6857 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sortais, Y.

B. Darquie, M. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmetz, T.

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, Nature 450, 272 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teper, I.

I. Teper, Y.-J. Lin, and V. Vuletić, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trupke, M.

M. Trupke, J. Goldwin, B. Darquié, G. Dutier, S. Eriksson, J. Ashmore, and E. A. Hinds, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 063601 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valhala, K.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. Bowen, A. Parkins, T. Kippenberg, K. Valhala, and H. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vuletic, V.

I. Teper, Y.-J. Lin, and V. Vuletić, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

F. Diedrich and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 203 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wicker, K.

M. Wilzbach, A. Haase, M. Schwarz, D. Heine, K. Wicker, S. G. X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, T. Fernholz, B. Hessmo, and J. Schmiedmayer, Fortschr. Phys. 54, 746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilcut, E.

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. Bowen, A. Parkins, T. Kippenberg, K. Valhala, and H. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wildermuth, S.

S. Groth, P. Kruger, S. Wildermuth, R. Folman, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, D. Mahalu, and I. Bar-Joseph, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wildermuth, P. Krüger, C. Becker, M. Brajdic, S. Haupt, A. Kasper, R. Folman, and J. Schmiedmayer, Phys. Rev. A 69, 030901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilzbach, M.

M. Wilzbach, A. Haase, M. Schwarz, D. Heine, K. Wicker, S. G. X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, T. Fernholz, B. Hessmo, and J. Schmiedmayer, Fortschr. Phys. 54, 746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, M. Wilzbach, M. Schwarz, T. Fernholz, and J. Schmiedmayer, Appl. Opt. 44, 6857 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wineland, D.

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E.

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Rev. Mod. Phys. 37, 231 (1965). To calculate the mean and variance we use pphoton(n)=∑m=0∞pat(m)(αm)nn!e−αm, where pat(m) is the probability to have m atoms in the considered time interval. Each atom emits on average α photons.
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, C.

J. Fortágh and C. Zimmermann, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Groth, P. Kruger, S. Wildermuth, R. Folman, T. Fernholz, J. Schmiedmayer, D. Mahalu, and I. Bar-Joseph, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2980 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fortschr. Phys. (1)

M. Wilzbach, A. Haase, M. Schwarz, D. Heine, K. Wicker, S. G. X. Liu, K.-H. Brenner, T. Fernholz, B. Hessmo, and J. Schmiedmayer, Fortschr. Phys. 54, 746 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

T. Aoki, B. Dayan, E. Wilcut, W. Bowen, A. Parkins, T. Kippenberg, K. Valhala, and H. Kimble, Nature 443, 671 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Colombe, T. Steinmetz, G. Dubois, F. Linke, D. Hunger, and J. Reichel, Nature 450, 272 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Bondo, M. Hennrich, T. Legero, G. Rempe, and A. Kuhn, Opt. Commun. 264, 271 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. Wildermuth, P. Krüger, C. Becker, M. Brajdic, S. Haupt, A. Kasper, R. Folman, and J. Schmiedmayer, Phys. Rev. A 69, 030901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

A. Öttl, S. Ritter, M. Köhl, and T. Esslinger, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 090404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Diedrich and H. Walther, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 203 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

I. Teper, Y.-J. Lin, and V. Vuletić, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023002 (2006).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (3)

D. Leibfried, R. Blatt, C. Monroe, and D. Wineland, Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 281 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Fortágh and C. Zimmermann, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 235 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Mandel and E. Wolf, Rev. Mod. Phys. 37, 231 (1965). To calculate the mean and variance we use pphoton(n)=∑m=0∞pat(m)(αm)nn!e−αm, where pat(m) is the probability to have m atoms in the considered time interval. Each atom emits on average α photons.
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

B. Darquie, M. Jones, J. Dingjan, J. Beugnon, S. Bergamini, Y. Sortais, G. Messin, A. Browaeys, and P. Grangier, Science 309, 454 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Integrated detector: (a) basic layout of the detector and the atom chip. Resonant excitation light is delivered via a tapered lensed fiber. The fluorescence light is collected by a multimode fiber and guided to a single-photon counting module (SPCM). (b) Schematic layout of the atom chip. Atoms are initially trapped in a magnetic trap generated by a Z-shaped wire. The L-shaped magnetic guide transports the atoms to the focus of the tapered lensed fiber. (c) Cross-section through the SU-8 structures holding the fiber. (d) Top view of the fibers. The multimode fiber collects fluorescence light from the excited atoms (cone).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photon statistics: (a) mean photon count rate averaged over 600 individual measurements represents the density profile of the atom pulse passing the detector (integration time 200 μ s ). The black dotted line indicates the mean background level. (b) The ratio of variance over mean shows that for the first 50 ms , where no atoms are present, the collected background follows Poissonian statistics. As soon as the atoms arrive Var ( n ) n exhibits a super-Poissonian value of 1 + α . Even though α remains constant the ratio decreases with atomic density as background becomes more important. The line is a fit derived from Eq. (1), assuming a Poissonian distribution of the atoms. In the fit region the atomic density changes more than 2 orders of magnitude. The initial overshoot is an artifact caused by the extreme slope around peak intensities due to the employed integration time. (c) Signal strength α as a function of arrival time, illustrating that α is independent of atom density (integration time 50 μ s ).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of integration time: (a) signal strength α as a function of the integration time t int . While 300 μ s are needed to collect the full signal α drops only slowly for shorter integration times. (b) Single-atom detection efficiency η at (solid line) and false positive detection probability p f for a background of 311 cps (dashed, current setup) and 55 cps (dotted, improved setup) shown versus t int .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Characteristic Properties of the Integrated Single-Atom Detector a

Equations (1)

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Var ( n ) n = 1 + α Var ( m ) m + b g α ,

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