Abstract

We demonstrate that a high degree of circular polarization can be delivered to the near field (NF) of an aperture at the apex of hollow-pyramid probes for scanning optical microscopy. This result is achieved by analyzing the dichroic properties of an annealed thin polymer film containing a chiral polyfluorene derivative, placed in close proximity to the optical probe. We also prove that the degree of circular polarization in the probe NF does not depend in a significant way on the shape of the aperture, at variance with the far-field behavior. These results demonstrate the feasibility of nano-optics applications exploiting circularly polarized NFs.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Biagioni, D. Polli, M. Labardi, A. Pucci, G. Ruggeri, G. Cerullo, M. Finazzi, and L. Duò, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223112 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Savoini, P. Biagioni, L. Duò, and M. Finazzi, Opt. Lett. 34, 761 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. Hassey, E. J. Swain, N. I. Hammer, D. Venkataraman, and M. D. Barnes, Science 314, 1437 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Tang, T. A. Cook, and A. E. Cohen, J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 6213 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. H. Dressler, A. Landau, A. Zaban, and Y. Mastai, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 945 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. P. Lopinski, D. J. Moffatt, D. D. Wayner, and R. A. Wolkow, Nature 392, 909 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Hidalgo, A. Sanchez-Castillo, and C. Noguez, Phys. Rev. B 79, 075438 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. V. Kimel, A. Kirilyuk, P. A. Usachev, R. V. Pisarev, A. M. Balbashov, and Th. Rasing, Nature 435, 655 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Drezet, M. J. Nasse, S. Huant, and J. C. Woehl, EPL 66, 41 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. J. Shin, A. Chavez-Pirson, and Y. H. Lee, J. Microsc. 194, 353 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Werner, O. Rudow, C. Mihalcea, and E. Oesterschulze, Appl. Phys. A 66, S367 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. R. Craig, P. Jonkheijm, S. C. J. Meskers, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, Adv. Mater. 15, 1435 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. J. Abbel, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, Macromolecules 41, 7497 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Lakhwani, S. C. J. Meskers, and R. A. J. Janssen, J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 5124 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. The laser intensity impinging on the tip is approximately 5 mW. Typical measured throughput of our NF probes is 5×10−3.
  17. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2009

M. Savoini, P. Biagioni, L. Duò, and M. Finazzi, Opt. Lett. 34, 761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tang, T. A. Cook, and A. E. Cohen, J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 6213 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Hidalgo, A. Sanchez-Castillo, and C. Noguez, Phys. Rev. B 79, 075438 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

R. J. Abbel, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, Macromolecules 41, 7497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

G. Lakhwani, S. C. J. Meskers, and R. A. J. Janssen, J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 5124 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Dressler, A. Landau, A. Zaban, and Y. Mastai, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 945 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. Hassey, E. J. Swain, N. I. Hammer, D. Venkataraman, and M. D. Barnes, Science 314, 1437 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. V. Kimel, A. Kirilyuk, P. A. Usachev, R. V. Pisarev, A. M. Balbashov, and Th. Rasing, Nature 435, 655 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Biagioni, D. Polli, M. Labardi, A. Pucci, G. Ruggeri, G. Cerullo, M. Finazzi, and L. Duò, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Drezet, M. J. Nasse, S. Huant, and J. C. Woehl, EPL 66, 41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. R. Craig, P. Jonkheijm, S. C. J. Meskers, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, Adv. Mater. 15, 1435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

D. J. Shin, A. Chavez-Pirson, and Y. H. Lee, J. Microsc. 194, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Werner, O. Rudow, C. Mihalcea, and E. Oesterschulze, Appl. Phys. A 66, S367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Lopinski, D. J. Moffatt, D. D. Wayner, and R. A. Wolkow, Nature 392, 909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abbel, R. J.

R. J. Abbel, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, Macromolecules 41, 7497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balbashov, A. M.

A. V. Kimel, A. Kirilyuk, P. A. Usachev, R. V. Pisarev, A. M. Balbashov, and Th. Rasing, Nature 435, 655 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, M. D.

R. Hassey, E. J. Swain, N. I. Hammer, D. Venkataraman, and M. D. Barnes, Science 314, 1437 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biagioni, P.

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Savoini, P. Biagioni, L. Duò, and M. Finazzi, Opt. Lett. 34, 761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Biagioni, D. Polli, M. Labardi, A. Pucci, G. Ruggeri, G. Cerullo, M. Finazzi, and L. Duò, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

P. Biagioni, D. Polli, M. Labardi, A. Pucci, G. Ruggeri, G. Cerullo, M. Finazzi, and L. Duò, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chavez-Pirson, A.

D. J. Shin, A. Chavez-Pirson, and Y. H. Lee, J. Microsc. 194, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, A. E.

Y. Tang, T. A. Cook, and A. E. Cohen, J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 6213 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, T. A.

Y. Tang, T. A. Cook, and A. E. Cohen, J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 6213 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Craig, M. R.

M. R. Craig, P. Jonkheijm, S. C. J. Meskers, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, Adv. Mater. 15, 1435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dressler, D. H.

D. H. Dressler, A. Landau, A. Zaban, and Y. Mastai, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 945 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Drezet, A.

A. Drezet, M. J. Nasse, S. Huant, and J. C. Woehl, EPL 66, 41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Duò, L.

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Savoini, P. Biagioni, L. Duò, and M. Finazzi, Opt. Lett. 34, 761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Biagioni, D. Polli, M. Labardi, A. Pucci, G. Ruggeri, G. Cerullo, M. Finazzi, and L. Duò, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Finazzi, M.

M. Savoini, P. Biagioni, L. Duò, and M. Finazzi, Opt. Lett. 34, 761 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Biagioni, D. Polli, M. Labardi, A. Pucci, G. Ruggeri, G. Cerullo, M. Finazzi, and L. Duò, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, N. I.

R. Hassey, E. J. Swain, N. I. Hammer, D. Venkataraman, and M. D. Barnes, Science 314, 1437 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hassey, R.

R. Hassey, E. J. Swain, N. I. Hammer, D. Venkataraman, and M. D. Barnes, Science 314, 1437 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hidalgo, F.

F. Hidalgo, A. Sanchez-Castillo, and C. Noguez, Phys. Rev. B 79, 075438 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. S.

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huant, S.

A. Drezet, M. J. Nasse, S. Huant, and J. C. Woehl, EPL 66, 41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, R. A. J.

G. Lakhwani, S. C. J. Meskers, and R. A. J. Janssen, J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 5124 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonkheijm, P.

M. R. Craig, P. Jonkheijm, S. C. J. Meskers, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, Adv. Mater. 15, 1435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kimel, A. V.

A. V. Kimel, A. Kirilyuk, P. A. Usachev, R. V. Pisarev, A. M. Balbashov, and Th. Rasing, Nature 435, 655 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirilyuk, A.

A. V. Kimel, A. Kirilyuk, P. A. Usachev, R. V. Pisarev, A. M. Balbashov, and Th. Rasing, Nature 435, 655 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Labardi, M.

P. Biagioni, D. Polli, M. Labardi, A. Pucci, G. Ruggeri, G. Cerullo, M. Finazzi, and L. Duò, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lakhwani, G.

G. Lakhwani, S. C. J. Meskers, and R. A. J. Janssen, J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 5124 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Landau, A.

D. H. Dressler, A. Landau, A. Zaban, and Y. Mastai, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 945 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

D. J. Shin, A. Chavez-Pirson, and Y. H. Lee, J. Microsc. 194, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lopinski, G. P.

G. P. Lopinski, D. J. Moffatt, D. D. Wayner, and R. A. Wolkow, Nature 392, 909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mastai, Y.

D. H. Dressler, A. Landau, A. Zaban, and Y. Mastai, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 945 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meijer, E. W.

R. J. Abbel, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, Macromolecules 41, 7497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Craig, P. Jonkheijm, S. C. J. Meskers, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, Adv. Mater. 15, 1435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meskers, S. C. J.

G. Lakhwani, S. C. J. Meskers, and R. A. J. Janssen, J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 5124 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Craig, P. Jonkheijm, S. C. J. Meskers, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, Adv. Mater. 15, 1435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mihalcea, C.

S. Werner, O. Rudow, C. Mihalcea, and E. Oesterschulze, Appl. Phys. A 66, S367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moffatt, D. J.

G. P. Lopinski, D. J. Moffatt, D. D. Wayner, and R. A. Wolkow, Nature 392, 909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nasse, M. J.

A. Drezet, M. J. Nasse, S. Huant, and J. C. Woehl, EPL 66, 41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noguez, C.

F. Hidalgo, A. Sanchez-Castillo, and C. Noguez, Phys. Rev. B 79, 075438 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oesterschulze, E.

S. Werner, O. Rudow, C. Mihalcea, and E. Oesterschulze, Appl. Phys. A 66, S367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pisarev, R. V.

A. V. Kimel, A. Kirilyuk, P. A. Usachev, R. V. Pisarev, A. M. Balbashov, and Th. Rasing, Nature 435, 655 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Polli, D.

P. Biagioni, D. Polli, M. Labardi, A. Pucci, G. Ruggeri, G. Cerullo, M. Finazzi, and L. Duò, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pucci, A.

P. Biagioni, D. Polli, M. Labardi, A. Pucci, G. Ruggeri, G. Cerullo, M. Finazzi, and L. Duò, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, Th.

A. V. Kimel, A. Kirilyuk, P. A. Usachev, R. V. Pisarev, A. M. Balbashov, and Th. Rasing, Nature 435, 655 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rudow, O.

S. Werner, O. Rudow, C. Mihalcea, and E. Oesterschulze, Appl. Phys. A 66, S367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ruggeri, G.

P. Biagioni, D. Polli, M. Labardi, A. Pucci, G. Ruggeri, G. Cerullo, M. Finazzi, and L. Duò, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Castillo, A.

F. Hidalgo, A. Sanchez-Castillo, and C. Noguez, Phys. Rev. B 79, 075438 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Savoini, M.

Schenning, A. P. H. J.

R. J. Abbel, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, Macromolecules 41, 7497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Craig, P. Jonkheijm, S. C. J. Meskers, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, Adv. Mater. 15, 1435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shin, D. J.

D. J. Shin, A. Chavez-Pirson, and Y. H. Lee, J. Microsc. 194, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swain, E. J.

R. Hassey, E. J. Swain, N. I. Hammer, D. Venkataraman, and M. D. Barnes, Science 314, 1437 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, Y.

Y. Tang, T. A. Cook, and A. E. Cohen, J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 6213 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Usachev, P. A.

A. V. Kimel, A. Kirilyuk, P. A. Usachev, R. V. Pisarev, A. M. Balbashov, and Th. Rasing, Nature 435, 655 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkataraman, D.

R. Hassey, E. J. Swain, N. I. Hammer, D. Venkataraman, and M. D. Barnes, Science 314, 1437 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wayner, D. D.

G. P. Lopinski, D. J. Moffatt, D. D. Wayner, and R. A. Wolkow, Nature 392, 909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Werner, S.

S. Werner, O. Rudow, C. Mihalcea, and E. Oesterschulze, Appl. Phys. A 66, S367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Woehl, J. C.

A. Drezet, M. J. Nasse, S. Huant, and J. C. Woehl, EPL 66, 41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wolkow, R. A.

G. P. Lopinski, D. J. Moffatt, D. D. Wayner, and R. A. Wolkow, Nature 392, 909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zaban, A.

D. H. Dressler, A. Landau, A. Zaban, and Y. Mastai, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 945 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

M. R. Craig, P. Jonkheijm, S. C. J. Meskers, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, Adv. Mater. 15, 1435 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

S. Werner, O. Rudow, C. Mihalcea, and E. Oesterschulze, Appl. Phys. A 66, S367 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Biagioni, D. Polli, M. Labardi, A. Pucci, G. Ruggeri, G. Cerullo, M. Finazzi, and L. Duò, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 223112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Cambridge)

D. H. Dressler, A. Landau, A. Zaban, and Y. Mastai, Chem. Commun. (Cambridge) 945 (2007).
[CrossRef]

EPL

A. Drezet, M. J. Nasse, S. Huant, and J. C. Woehl, EPL 66, 41 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, D. W. Pohl, and L. Novotny, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc.

D. J. Shin, A. Chavez-Pirson, and Y. H. Lee, J. Microsc. 194, 353 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A

Y. Tang, T. A. Cook, and A. E. Cohen, J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 6213 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B

G. Lakhwani, S. C. J. Meskers, and R. A. J. Janssen, J. Phys. Chem. B 111, 5124 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macromolecules

R. J. Abbel, A. P. H. J. Schenning, and E. W. Meijer, Macromolecules 41, 7497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

G. P. Lopinski, D. J. Moffatt, D. D. Wayner, and R. A. Wolkow, Nature 392, 909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Kimel, A. Kirilyuk, P. A. Usachev, R. V. Pisarev, A. M. Balbashov, and Th. Rasing, Nature 435, 655 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

F. Hidalgo, A. Sanchez-Castillo, and C. Noguez, Phys. Rev. B 79, 075438 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. Biagioni, J. S. Huang, L. Duò, M. Finazzi, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 256801 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

R. Hassey, E. J. Swain, N. I. Hammer, D. Venkataraman, and M. D. Barnes, Science 314, 1437 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

The laser intensity impinging on the tip is approximately 5 mW. Typical measured throughput of our NF probes is 5×10−3.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a),(b) SEM images of the vertices of NF tips. (c) Sketch of the geometry of the experiment indicating the angles θ and β of the polarizer and quarter-wave plate axes with respect to the axes of the tips. (d) Intensity of the FF intensity of the light from the tip apertures as a function of the angle β at a fixed θ = 45 ° value.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Sample topography including a scratch exposing the glass substrate (dark area). (b) Line profile of the topography measured along the dashed line in (a). (c) NF map of g trans multiplied by the degree P C of circular light delivered to the sample. (d) Confocal map of g trans ( P C = 1 ) . The scanned sample area is the same in (a), (c), and (d). Tip of Fig. 1a is used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Sample topography including a scratch exposing the glass substrate (dark area). (b) NF map obtained on the same area as (a) with linearly polarized light showing the product g trans P L , with P L being the degree of linear polarization delivered to the sample.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = I R + I L + 2 I R I L   cos [ 2 ( β θ ) ] cos ( 2 β ϕ ) + ( I L I R ) sin [ 2 ( β θ ) ] ,
P C FF = I R I L I R + I L .
g trans = 2 I L I R ( I L + I R ) .
I 1 st ( I L I R ) P C ,

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