Abstract

We report quantification of the free-carrier absorption (FCA) cross section in silicon nanocrystals embedded in a thin SiO2 film at 1540 nm using a collinear pump–probe method. To this end, we measured the pump-intensity dependence of both the light transmission through the film and the photoexcited carrier density in the nanocrystals. From these measurements, we extracted a FCA cross section of σFCA=(3.6±1.4)×1017cm2, consistent with previous results in the visible range and the known λ2 scaling behavior of this quantity. Given the rapidly rising prevalence of silicon-based active photonic devices, our finding assumes particular significance for Si-nanocrystal-sensitized rare-earth-atom lasers and all optical switches at important telecom wavelengths.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. Silicon Photonics: The State of the Art, G.T.Reed, ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Kitagawa, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, S. Theriault, J. Albert, D. Jihnson, K. Hill, K. Hattori, and Y. Hibino, Electron. Lett. 30, 1311 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1198 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. P. Dumke, Phys. Rev. 127, 1559 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and L. Dal Negro, Phys. Rev. B 67, 245301 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Tewary, R. D. Kekatpure, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093114 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Phys. Rev. A 78, 023829 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, M. Bittner, and P. Malý, Phys. Rev. B 72, 075365 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. A. Rowlette, R. D. Kekatpure, M. A. Panzer, M. L. Brongersma, and K. E. Goodson, Phys. Rev. B 80, 045314 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. G. Kik and A. Polman, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1992 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. G. Yoo, Y. Fu, D. Riley, J. H. Shin, and P. M. Fauchet, Opt. Express 16, 8623 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, Nature Mater. 4, 143 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Li, J. R. Schneck, J. Warga, L. D. Ziegler, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091119 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. A. Rowlette, R. D. Kekatpure, M. A. Panzer, M. L. Brongersma, and K. E. Goodson, Phys. Rev. B 80, 045314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Phys. Rev. A 78, 023829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Li, J. R. Schneck, J. Warga, L. D. Ziegler, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Yoo, Y. Fu, D. Riley, J. H. Shin, and P. M. Fauchet, Opt. Express 16, 8623 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

A. Tewary, R. D. Kekatpure, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, M. Bittner, and P. Malý, Phys. Rev. B 72, 075365 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, Nature Mater. 4, 143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and L. Dal Negro, Phys. Rev. B 67, 245301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1992 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1198 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Kitagawa, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, S. Theriault, J. Albert, D. Jihnson, K. Hill, K. Hattori, and Y. Hibino, Electron. Lett. 30, 1311 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

W. P. Dumke, Phys. Rev. 127, 1559 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

T. Kitagawa, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, S. Theriault, J. Albert, D. Jihnson, K. Hill, K. Hattori, and Y. Hibino, Electron. Lett. 30, 1311 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, Nature Mater. 4, 143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

T. Kitagawa, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, S. Theriault, J. Albert, D. Jihnson, K. Hill, K. Hattori, and Y. Hibino, Electron. Lett. 30, 1311 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bittner, M.

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, M. Bittner, and P. Malý, Phys. Rev. B 72, 075365 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bourianoff, G. I.

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, Nature Mater. 4, 143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Rowlette, R. D. Kekatpure, M. A. Panzer, M. L. Brongersma, and K. E. Goodson, Phys. Rev. B 80, 045314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Phys. Rev. A 78, 023829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Tewary, R. D. Kekatpure, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dal Negro, L.

D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and L. Dal Negro, Phys. Rev. B 67, 245301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dumke, W. P.

W. P. Dumke, Phys. Rev. 127, 1559 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

Franzò, G.

D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and L. Dal Negro, Phys. Rev. B 67, 245301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

Fujii, M.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1198 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Goodson, K. E.

J. A. Rowlette, R. D. Kekatpure, M. A. Panzer, M. L. Brongersma, and K. E. Goodson, Phys. Rev. B 80, 045314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, K.

T. Kitagawa, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, S. Theriault, J. Albert, D. Jihnson, K. Hill, K. Hattori, and Y. Hibino, Electron. Lett. 30, 1311 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1198 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

T. Kitagawa, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, S. Theriault, J. Albert, D. Jihnson, K. Hill, K. Hattori, and Y. Hibino, Electron. Lett. 30, 1311 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K.

T. Kitagawa, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, S. Theriault, J. Albert, D. Jihnson, K. Hill, K. Hattori, and Y. Hibino, Electron. Lett. 30, 1311 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Iacona, F.

D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and L. Dal Negro, Phys. Rev. B 67, 245301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jihnson, D.

T. Kitagawa, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, S. Theriault, J. Albert, D. Jihnson, K. Hill, K. Hattori, and Y. Hibino, Electron. Lett. 30, 1311 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kalkman, J.

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kanzawa, Y.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1198 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kekatpure, R. D.

J. A. Rowlette, R. D. Kekatpure, M. A. Panzer, M. L. Brongersma, and K. E. Goodson, Phys. Rev. B 80, 045314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Phys. Rev. A 78, 023829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Tewary, R. D. Kekatpure, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1992 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kitagawa, T.

T. Kitagawa, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, S. Theriault, J. Albert, D. Jihnson, K. Hill, K. Hattori, and Y. Hibino, Electron. Lett. 30, 1311 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

R. Li, J. R. Schneck, J. Warga, L. D. Ziegler, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Malo, B.

T. Kitagawa, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, S. Theriault, J. Albert, D. Jihnson, K. Hill, K. Hattori, and Y. Hibino, Electron. Lett. 30, 1311 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Malý, P.

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, M. Bittner, and P. Malý, Phys. Rev. B 72, 075365 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Negro, L. D.

R. Li, J. R. Schneck, J. Warga, L. D. Ziegler, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neudert, K.

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, M. Bittner, and P. Malý, Phys. Rev. B 72, 075365 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pacifici, D.

D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and L. Dal Negro, Phys. Rev. B 67, 245301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Panzer, M. A.

J. A. Rowlette, R. D. Kekatpure, M. A. Panzer, M. L. Brongersma, and K. E. Goodson, Phys. Rev. B 80, 045314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1992 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and L. Dal Negro, Phys. Rev. B 67, 245301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riley, D.

Rowlette, J. A.

J. A. Rowlette, R. D. Kekatpure, M. A. Panzer, M. L. Brongersma, and K. E. Goodson, Phys. Rev. B 80, 045314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schneck, J. R.

R. Li, J. R. Schneck, J. Warga, L. D. Ziegler, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J. H.

Tewary, A.

A. Tewary, R. D. Kekatpure, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Theriault, S.

T. Kitagawa, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, S. Theriault, J. Albert, D. Jihnson, K. Hill, K. Hattori, and Y. Hibino, Electron. Lett. 30, 1311 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Trojánek, F.

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, M. Bittner, and P. Malý, Phys. Rev. B 72, 075365 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walters, R. J.

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, Nature Mater. 4, 143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Warga, J.

R. Li, J. R. Schneck, J. Warga, L. D. Ziegler, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1198 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, H. G.

Yoshida, M.

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1198 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, L. D.

R. Li, J. R. Schneck, J. Warga, L. D. Ziegler, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

M. Fujii, M. Yoshida, Y. Kanzawa, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamamoto, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1198 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Tewary, R. D. Kekatpure, and M. L. Brongersma, Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 093114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, J. R. Schneck, J. Warga, L. D. Ziegler, and L. D. Negro, Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 091119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Kitagawa, F. Bilodeau, B. Malo, S. Theriault, J. Albert, D. Jihnson, K. Hill, K. Hattori, and Y. Hibino, Electron. Lett. 30, 1311 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, J. Appl. Phys. 88, 1992 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Nano Lett. 8, 3787 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Mater. (1)

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, Nature Mater. 4, 143 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

W. P. Dumke, Phys. Rev. 127, 1559 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, Phys. Rev. A 74, 051802 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, Phys. Rev. A 78, 023829 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

F. Trojánek, K. Neudert, M. Bittner, and P. Malý, Phys. Rev. B 72, 075365 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Rowlette, R. D. Kekatpure, M. A. Panzer, M. L. Brongersma, and K. E. Goodson, Phys. Rev. B 80, 045314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Pacifici, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, and L. Dal Negro, Phys. Rev. B 67, 245301 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

Silicon Photonics: The State of the Art, G.T.Reed, ed. (Wiley-Interscience, 2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the collinear pump–probe measurement of the FCA cross section. M1–M4, mirrors; BS1 and BS2, beam splitters; AOM, acousto-optic modulator used for chopping the cw pump-laser beam; SMF, single–mode fiber; Obj, objective lenses. The inset shows a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image of a representative Si nanocrystal in the film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption coefficient of a Si-nc-doped SiO 2 film at 1540 nm measured by the collinear pump–probe technique.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured pump-induced absorption Δ α FC as a function of the calculated free-carrier density n FC . The straight line nature of the graph affirms Eq. (1). Inset, free-carrier density calculated from Eqs. (2, 3).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FCA cross section measured at VIS and NIR wavelengths. The measurements at the VIS wavelengths are made by monitoring the pump-induced broadening of resonant PL peaks of Si-nanocrystal-doped microdisk resonators [9]. The gray curve is the square-law fit to the data in the VIS range and extrapolated into the NIR. Inset, variation of the extracted FCA coefficient at 1540 nm as a function of the assumed value of the Auger coefficient C A .

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ α FC = σ FCA n FC .
0 = d f d t = σ ex I p ω p f τ 1 f 3 τ A .
n FC ( I p ) = λ min λ max f ( λ , I p ) ρ ( R ) d R d λ d λ ,
g net = σ em N Er σ FCA N nc = N nc ( γ e σ em σ FCA ) .

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