Abstract

An innovative scintillating material prepared through distributing cesium iodide (CsI) nanocrystals into pores of a transparent nanoporous silica using a sol–gel technology has been developed. The CsI nanocrystals doped porous silica material has been designed and made into an optical fiber by using a patented sol–gel technique. This CsI-doped sol–gel silica optical fiber was conveniently connected to a highly sensitive photon detector in testing the material for detecting gamma radiation. The preliminary test result reported in this Letter clearly demonstrates the feasibility of this scintillating fiber for detecting high-energy radiations.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Tao, C. B. Winstead, R. Jindal, and J. P. Singh, IEEE Sens. J. 4, 322 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. T. V. S. Sarma and S. Tao, Sens. Actuators B 127, 471 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Guo and S. Tao, Sens. Actuators B 123, 578 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Guo and S. Tao, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 323 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Karasinski, Opt. Appl. 34, 467 (2005).

2008

S. Tao, J. C. Fanguy, and T. V. S. Sarma, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 2000 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. V. S. Sarma and S. Tao, Sens. Actuators B 127, 471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo and S. Tao, Sens. Actuators B 123, 578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo and S. Tao, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 323 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

P. Karasinski, Opt. Appl. 34, 467 (2005).

S. R. Miller, V. Gaysinskiy, I. Shestakova, and V. V. Nagarkar, Proc. SPIE 5923, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Tao, C. B. Winstead, R. Jindal, and J. P. Singh, IEEE Sens. J. 4, 322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

S. Niese, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 250, 581 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Headrick, M. Sepaniak, S. Alexandratos, and P. Datskos, Anal. Chem. 72, 1994 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

M. S. Gadd and T. B. Borak, Health Phys. 68, 394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

K. H. Abel, R. J. Arthur, M. Bliss, D. W. Brite, R. L. Brodzinski, R. A. Craig, B. D. Geelhood, D. S. Goldman, and J. W. Griffin, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 353, 114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1977

S. Dutta-Chaudhuri and A. L. Odell, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 28, 440 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Abel, K. H.

K. H. Abel, R. J. Arthur, M. Bliss, D. W. Brite, R. L. Brodzinski, R. A. Craig, B. D. Geelhood, D. S. Goldman, and J. W. Griffin, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 353, 114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alexandratos, S.

J. Headrick, M. Sepaniak, S. Alexandratos, and P. Datskos, Anal. Chem. 72, 1994 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arthur, R. J.

K. H. Abel, R. J. Arthur, M. Bliss, D. W. Brite, R. L. Brodzinski, R. A. Craig, B. D. Geelhood, D. S. Goldman, and J. W. Griffin, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 353, 114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bliss, M.

K. H. Abel, R. J. Arthur, M. Bliss, D. W. Brite, R. L. Brodzinski, R. A. Craig, B. D. Geelhood, D. S. Goldman, and J. W. Griffin, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 353, 114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Borak, T. B.

M. S. Gadd and T. B. Borak, Health Phys. 68, 394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brite, D. W.

K. H. Abel, R. J. Arthur, M. Bliss, D. W. Brite, R. L. Brodzinski, R. A. Craig, B. D. Geelhood, D. S. Goldman, and J. W. Griffin, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 353, 114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brodzinski, R. L.

K. H. Abel, R. J. Arthur, M. Bliss, D. W. Brite, R. L. Brodzinski, R. A. Craig, B. D. Geelhood, D. S. Goldman, and J. W. Griffin, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 353, 114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Craig, R. A.

K. H. Abel, R. J. Arthur, M. Bliss, D. W. Brite, R. L. Brodzinski, R. A. Craig, B. D. Geelhood, D. S. Goldman, and J. W. Griffin, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 353, 114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Datskos, P.

J. Headrick, M. Sepaniak, S. Alexandratos, and P. Datskos, Anal. Chem. 72, 1994 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dutta-Chaudhuri, S.

S. Dutta-Chaudhuri and A. L. Odell, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 28, 440 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fanguy, J. C.

S. Tao, J. C. Fanguy, and T. V. S. Sarma, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 2000 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gadd, M. S.

M. S. Gadd and T. B. Borak, Health Phys. 68, 394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaysinskiy, V.

S. R. Miller, V. Gaysinskiy, I. Shestakova, and V. V. Nagarkar, Proc. SPIE 5923, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geelhood, B. D.

K. H. Abel, R. J. Arthur, M. Bliss, D. W. Brite, R. L. Brodzinski, R. A. Craig, B. D. Geelhood, D. S. Goldman, and J. W. Griffin, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 353, 114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, D. S.

K. H. Abel, R. J. Arthur, M. Bliss, D. W. Brite, R. L. Brodzinski, R. A. Craig, B. D. Geelhood, D. S. Goldman, and J. W. Griffin, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 353, 114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, J. W.

K. H. Abel, R. J. Arthur, M. Bliss, D. W. Brite, R. L. Brodzinski, R. A. Craig, B. D. Geelhood, D. S. Goldman, and J. W. Griffin, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 353, 114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

H. Guo and S. Tao, Sens. Actuators B 123, 578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo and S. Tao, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 323 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Headrick, J.

J. Headrick, M. Sepaniak, S. Alexandratos, and P. Datskos, Anal. Chem. 72, 1994 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jindal, R.

S. Tao, C. B. Winstead, R. Jindal, and J. P. Singh, IEEE Sens. J. 4, 322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Tao, C. B. Winstead, J. P. Singh, and R. Jindal, Opt. Lett. 27, 1382 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Karasinski, P.

P. Karasinski, Opt. Appl. 34, 467 (2005).

Miller, S. R.

S. R. Miller, V. Gaysinskiy, I. Shestakova, and V. V. Nagarkar, Proc. SPIE 5923, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nagarkar, V. V.

S. R. Miller, V. Gaysinskiy, I. Shestakova, and V. V. Nagarkar, Proc. SPIE 5923, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Niese, S.

S. Niese, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 250, 581 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Odell, A. L.

S. Dutta-Chaudhuri and A. L. Odell, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 28, 440 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Sarma, T. V. S.

S. Tao, J. C. Fanguy, and T. V. S. Sarma, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 2000 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. V. S. Sarma and S. Tao, Sens. Actuators B 127, 471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sepaniak, M.

J. Headrick, M. Sepaniak, S. Alexandratos, and P. Datskos, Anal. Chem. 72, 1994 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shestakova, I.

S. R. Miller, V. Gaysinskiy, I. Shestakova, and V. V. Nagarkar, Proc. SPIE 5923, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Singh, J. P.

S. Tao, C. B. Winstead, R. Jindal, and J. P. Singh, IEEE Sens. J. 4, 322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Tao, C. B. Winstead, J. P. Singh, and R. Jindal, Opt. Lett. 27, 1382 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tao, S.

S. Tao, J. C. Fanguy, and T. V. S. Sarma, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 2000 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo and S. Tao, Sens. Actuators B 123, 578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. V. S. Sarma and S. Tao, Sens. Actuators B 127, 471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo and S. Tao, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 323 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Tao, C. B. Winstead, R. Jindal, and J. P. Singh, IEEE Sens. J. 4, 322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Tao, C. B. Winstead, J. P. Singh, and R. Jindal, Opt. Lett. 27, 1382 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Winstead, C. B.

S. Tao, C. B. Winstead, R. Jindal, and J. P. Singh, IEEE Sens. J. 4, 322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Tao, C. B. Winstead, J. P. Singh, and R. Jindal, Opt. Lett. 27, 1382 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

J. Headrick, M. Sepaniak, S. Alexandratos, and P. Datskos, Anal. Chem. 72, 1994 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Health Phys.

M. S. Gadd and T. B. Borak, Health Phys. 68, 394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Sens. J.

S. Tao, C. B. Winstead, R. Jindal, and J. P. Singh, IEEE Sens. J. 4, 322 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Tao, J. C. Fanguy, and T. V. S. Sarma, IEEE Sens. J. 8, 2000 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo and S. Tao, IEEE Sens. J. 7, 323 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot.

S. Dutta-Chaudhuri and A. L. Odell, Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 28, 440 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem.

S. Niese, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 250, 581 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A

K. H. Abel, R. J. Arthur, M. Bliss, D. W. Brite, R. L. Brodzinski, R. A. Craig, B. D. Geelhood, D. S. Goldman, and J. W. Griffin, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 353, 114 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Appl.

P. Karasinski, Opt. Appl. 34, 467 (2005).

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

S. R. Miller, V. Gaysinskiy, I. Shestakova, and V. V. Nagarkar, Proc. SPIE 5923, 1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

T. V. S. Sarma and S. Tao, Sens. Actuators B 127, 471 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo and S. Tao, Sens. Actuators B 123, 578 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

http://www.nucsafe.com/Technology/selecting_gamma_detector.htm.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conceptual diagram of synthesizing a scintillating fiber that consists of CsI nanocrystals distributed in the pores of a nanoporous silica fiber. This diagram also shows the scintillating photon emission when a gamma ray impinged on the material and the transmission of the photons through the transparent silica fiber to a detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Picture of a CsI nanocrystal-doped porous silica optical fiber connected with a conventional silica optical fiber. The scintillating POF and the conventional silica optical fiber were connected inside a quartz capillary and fixed with epoxy glue.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time response of PMT photon counting signal when a porous silica optical fiber is exposed to gamma radiation. (a) CsI-doped porous silica optical fiber; (b) pure porous silica optical fiber.

Equations (1)

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PMT signal ( photons s ) = 39.6 * GammaRayIntensity ( R h ) + 101 ( R 2 = 0.9998 ) .

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