Abstract

Line-scanning, with pupil engineering and the use of linear array detectors, may enable simple, small, and low-cost confocal microscopes for clinical imaging of human epithelial tissues. However, a fundamental understanding of line-scanning performance within the highly scattering and aberrating conditions of human tissue is necessary, to translate from benchtop instrumentation to clinical implementation. The results of a preliminary investigation for reflectance imaging in skin are reported.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2007

2006

R. Wolleschensky, B. Zimmerman, and M. Kempe, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064011 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Dwyer, C. A. DiMarzio, J. M. Zavislan, W. J. Fox, and M. Rajadhyaksha, Opt. Lett. 31, 942 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

1994

E. H. K. Stelzer and S. Lindek, Opt. Commun. 111, 536 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, C. E.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiMarzio, C. A.

Dwyer, P. J.

Ferguson, R. D.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fox, W. J.

Hammer, D. X.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, S.

Iftimia, N. V.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Im, K.-B.

Kempe, M.

R. Wolleschensky, B. Zimmerman, and M. Kempe, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064011 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.-M.

Kim, D.

Lindek, S.

E. H. K. Stelzer and S. Lindek, Opt. Commun. 111, 536 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

Rajadhyaksha, M.

Stelzer, E. H. K.

E. H. K. Stelzer and S. Lindek, Opt. Commun. 111, 536 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ustun, T. E.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolleschensky, R.

R. Wolleschensky, B. Zimmerman, and M. Kempe, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064011 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zavislan, J. M.

Zimmerman, B.

R. Wolleschensky, B. Zimmerman, and M. Kempe, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064011 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Biomed. Opt.

R. Wolleschensky, B. Zimmerman, and M. Kempe, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 064011 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Hammer, R. D. Ferguson, T. E. Ustun, C. E. Bigelow, N. V. Iftimia, and R. H. Webb, J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041126 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

E. H. K. Stelzer and S. Lindek, Opt. Commun. 111, 536 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

S.G.Gonzalez, M.Gill, and A.C.Halpern, eds., Reflectance Confocal Microscopy of Cutaneous Tumors--an Atlas with Clinical, Dermoscopic and Histological Correlations (Informa Healthcare, 2008).
[PubMed]

T.Wilson, ed. Confocal Microscopy (Academic, 1990).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Full-pupil line-scanning confocal microscope. Illumination is with a collimated beam of diameter 10 mm from a diode laser at the near-IR wavelength of 830 nm (L4 830S-115-TE/ESYS, Microlaser, Inc.). The illumination path includes a cylindrical lens ( L cyl ) of focal length f cyl = 100 nm , a 50 50 thin plate beam splitter (BS), a galvanometric scan mirror (G, MiniSAX, GSI Lumonics), and a water immersion objective lens (Obj., Olympus 60×, 0.9 NA) of focal length f obj = 4 mm . The detection path includes a spherical detector lens ( L d ) of focal length f d = 160 mm and a linear CCD array detector (Reticon LC3022 with photodiode RL1024P Perkin-Elmer). The magnification in the detection path is f d f obj = 40 × .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimentally measured axial LSFs, (b) lateral ESFs, and (c) lateral LSFs under both nominal conditions and through full-thickness human epidermis. The 10%–90% width of the ESFs is determined by approximating with sigmoidal fits. Images of an edge in a reflective chrome-on-glass Ronchi ruling target, showing, visually, the nominal resolution and the degradation through (d) epidermis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)–(c) Reflectance images of human epidermis with the full-pupil line-scanning confocal microscope. Dark-appearing nuclei are seen within bright and grainy cellular cytoplasm (arrows) in (a) the spinous layers in vivo at depths of 20 50 μ m , (b) the basal layer in vivo at depths of 50 100 μ m , and (c) the superficial layers of surgically excised skin ex vivo. Also shown is an earlier image of the (d) spinous layer in vivo with the previously reported divided-pupil configuration. Scale bar, 75 μ m .

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Measured Values of FWHM Optical Section Thickness and Confocal Lateral Resolution for Full-Pupil and Divided-Pupil Configurations a

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