Abstract

We have studied the effect of oxidation on the propagation loss and surface roughness of silicon-on-oxidized-porous-silicon strip waveguides fabricated using proton-beam irradiation and electrochemical etching. A thin thermal oxide is formed around the core of the waveguide, enabling the symmetric reduction of core size and roughness on all sides. Significant loss reduction from about 10dBcmto1dBcm has been obtained in TE and TM polarizations after oxidation smoothening of both the bottom and the sidewalls by 20nm. This corresponds well with simulations using the beam-propagation method that show significant contributions from both surfaces.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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2009 (1)

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, and D. Blackwood, Phys. Rev. B 73, 035428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, and M. R. Josey, Electron. Lett. 35, 977 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

G. Lerondel, R. Romestain, and S. Barret, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Bruel, Electron. Lett. 31, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1982 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, Thin Solid Films 89, 249 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

K. Imai, Solid-State Electron. 24, 150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1969 (1)

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187 (1969).

Agarwal, A.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ang, T. W.

T. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, and M. R. Josey, Electron. Lett. 35, 977 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, Thin Solid Films 89, 249 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Barret, S.

G. Lerondel, R. Romestain, and S. Barret, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bettiol, A. A.

Blackwood, D.

M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, and D. Blackwood, Phys. Rev. B 73, 035428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blackwood, D. J.

Breese, M. B. H.

Bruel, M.

M. Bruel, Electron. Lett. 31, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cerrina, F.

Champeaux, F. J. T.

M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, and D. Blackwood, Phys. Rev. B 73, 035428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Colinge, J.-P.

J.-P. Colinge, Silicon-on-Insulator Technology: Materials to VLSI (Kluwer Academic, 1991).

Evans, A. G. R.

T. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, and M. R. Josey, Electron. Lett. 35, 977 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, L. S.

Hall, D. G.

Headley, W. R.

Imai, K.

K. Imai, Solid-State Electron. 24, 150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Josey, M. R.

T. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, and M. R. Josey, Electron. Lett. 35, 977 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, Opt. Lett. 26, 1888 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, in Silicon Photonics: an Introduction (Wiley, 2004).
[CrossRef]

Kurdi, B. N.

Lee, K. K.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, Opt. Lett. 26, 1888 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lerondel, G.

G. Lerondel, R. Romestain, and S. Barret, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, L. C. Kimerling, J. Shin, and F. Cerrina, Opt. Lett. 26, 1888 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mangaiyarkarasi, D.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187 (1969).

Mashanovich, G. Z.

Ow, Y. S.

Reed, G. T.

Romestain, R.

G. Lerondel, R. Romestain, and S. Barret, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Routley, P. R.

T. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, and M. R. Josey, Electron. Lett. 35, 977 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J.

Tang, X.

Teo, E. J.

Tien, P. K.

Vonsovici, A.

T. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, and M. R. Josey, Electron. Lett. 35, 977 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, B.

Yang, P.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agarwal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 3187 (1969).

Electron. Lett. (2)

T. W. Ang, G. T. Reed, A. Vonsovici, A. G. R. Evans, P. R. Routley, and M. R. Josey, Electron. Lett. 35, 977 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Bruel, Electron. Lett. 31, 1201 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Lerondel, R. Romestain, and S. Barret, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. B. H. Breese, F. J. T. Champeaux, E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, and D. Blackwood, Phys. Rev. B 73, 035428 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

K. Imai, Solid-State Electron. 24, 150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

D. E. Aspnes, Thin Solid Films 89, 249 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

BeamPROP by RSoft, www.rsoftdesign.com.

G. T. Reed and A. P. Knights, in Silicon Photonics: an Introduction (Wiley, 2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Colinge, Silicon-on-Insulator Technology: Materials to VLSI (Kluwer Academic, 1991).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Proton-beam irradiation through a photoresist (PR) mask and (b) PS formation until the end of ion range. The arrows show the holes bending around the irradiated regions during etching [9]. (c) Subsequent PS removal and etching to isolate the structures; (d) a two-step oxidation process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of the (a) top and (b) cross sectional and close-up views of the waveguides (c) before and (d) after oxidation. Inset, the respective output light imaged from each facet.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cutback measurements of waveguide before and after oxidation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SEM image and (b) AFM image of the underside of the waveguide. Calculated scattering loss (c) due to both the bottom and sidewalls and (d) due solely to sidewall roughness. The measured losses for waveguides (◼) before and (●) after oxidation are overlaid on each plot.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Effect of Oxidation on Bottom and Sidewall Surfaces of the Waveguides

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