Abstract

We report a terahertz (THz) photoconductive switch made from a composite of metal ErAs nanoparticles embedded in In0.53Ga0.47As and coupled to a square spiral antenna. The THz output power was measured in a 77 K cryostat by using a standard hyperhemisphere-lens package, a Golay cell outside the cryostat, and a quasi-optical filter bank for spot frequency spectral measurements. Results indicate an average output power of ∼12 μW at 22 V bias using 140 mW of optical pump power from a subpicosecond fiber mode-locked laser. In addition, the THz spectra displayed invariance to bias voltage despite operating near impact ionization.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Sartorius, H. Künzel, K. Biermann, J. Böttcher, H. Roehle, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, M. Mei, I. Z. Kozma, and R. Holzwarth, in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME6.
  2. B. Sartorius, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, J. Böttcher, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Venghaus, and M. Schell, Opt. Express 169565 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. R. Brown, Kimani K. Williams, W. Zhang, J. Suen, H. Lu, J. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 8, 402 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, E. Muller, and A. C. Gossard, J. Cryst. Growth 251, 243 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. R. Brown, A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Navi, and J. E. Bjarnason, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 524 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. D. Taylor, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, Opt. Lett. 31, 1729 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Lampert and P. Mark, Current Injection in Solids (Academic, 1970).
  8. D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, and E. R. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 51908 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Mangeney and P. Crozat, C. R. Phys. 9, 142 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009

E. R. Brown, Kimani K. Williams, W. Zhang, J. Suen, H. Lu, J. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 8, 402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

E. R. Brown, A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Navi, and J. E. Bjarnason, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 524 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Taylor, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, Opt. Lett. 31, 1729 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, and E. R. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 51908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, E. Muller, and A. C. Gossard, J. Cryst. Growth 251, 243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biermann, K.

B. Sartorius, H. Künzel, K. Biermann, J. Böttcher, H. Roehle, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, M. Mei, I. Z. Kozma, and R. Holzwarth, in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME6.

Bjarnason, J. E.

E. R. Brown, A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Navi, and J. E. Bjarnason, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 524 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Taylor, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, Opt. Lett. 31, 1729 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Böttcher, J.

B. Sartorius, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, J. Böttcher, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Venghaus, and M. Schell, Opt. Express 169565 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sartorius, H. Künzel, K. Biermann, J. Böttcher, H. Roehle, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, M. Mei, I. Z. Kozma, and R. Holzwarth, in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME6.

Brown, E. R.

E. R. Brown, Kimani K. Williams, W. Zhang, J. Suen, H. Lu, J. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 8, 402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Brown, A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Navi, and J. E. Bjarnason, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 524 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Taylor, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, Opt. Lett. 31, 1729 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, and E. R. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 51908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

J. Mangeney and P. Crozat, C. R. Phys. 9, 142 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, D. C.

D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, and E. R. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 51908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, E. Muller, and A. C. Gossard, J. Cryst. Growth 251, 243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

E. R. Brown, Kimani K. Williams, W. Zhang, J. Suen, H. Lu, J. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 8, 402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. D. Taylor, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, Opt. Lett. 31, 1729 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, and E. R. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 51908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, E. Muller, and A. C. Gossard, J. Cryst. Growth 251, 243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, M. P.

Z. D. Taylor, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, Opt. Lett. 31, 1729 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, and E. R. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 51908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, E. Muller, and A. C. Gossard, J. Cryst. Growth 251, 243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

B. Sartorius, H. Künzel, K. Biermann, J. Böttcher, H. Roehle, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, M. Mei, I. Z. Kozma, and R. Holzwarth, in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME6.

Koch, M.

B. Sartorius, H. Künzel, K. Biermann, J. Böttcher, H. Roehle, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, M. Mei, I. Z. Kozma, and R. Holzwarth, in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME6.

Kozma, I. Z.

B. Sartorius, H. Künzel, K. Biermann, J. Böttcher, H. Roehle, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, M. Mei, I. Z. Kozma, and R. Holzwarth, in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME6.

Künzel, H.

B. Sartorius, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, J. Böttcher, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Venghaus, and M. Schell, Opt. Express 169565 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sartorius, H. Künzel, K. Biermann, J. Böttcher, H. Roehle, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, M. Mei, I. Z. Kozma, and R. Holzwarth, in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME6.

Lampert, M.

M. Lampert and P. Mark, Current Injection in Solids (Academic, 1970).

Lee, A. W. M.

E. R. Brown, A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Navi, and J. E. Bjarnason, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 524 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

E. R. Brown, Kimani K. Williams, W. Zhang, J. Suen, H. Lu, J. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 8, 402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mangeney, J.

J. Mangeney and P. Crozat, C. R. Phys. 9, 142 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mark, P.

M. Lampert and P. Mark, Current Injection in Solids (Academic, 1970).

Mei, M.

B. Sartorius, H. Künzel, K. Biermann, J. Böttcher, H. Roehle, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, M. Mei, I. Z. Kozma, and R. Holzwarth, in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME6.

Mikulics, M.

B. Sartorius, H. Künzel, K. Biermann, J. Böttcher, H. Roehle, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, M. Mei, I. Z. Kozma, and R. Holzwarth, in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME6.

Muller, E.

D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, E. Muller, and A. C. Gossard, J. Cryst. Growth 251, 243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Navi, B. S.

E. R. Brown, A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Navi, and J. E. Bjarnason, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 524 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Roehle, H.

B. Sartorius, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, J. Böttcher, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Venghaus, and M. Schell, Opt. Express 169565 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sartorius, H. Künzel, K. Biermann, J. Böttcher, H. Roehle, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, M. Mei, I. Z. Kozma, and R. Holzwarth, in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME6.

Sartorius, B.

B. Sartorius, H. Roehle, H. Künzel, J. Böttcher, M. Schlak, D. Stanze, H. Venghaus, and M. Schell, Opt. Express 169565 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Sartorius, H. Künzel, K. Biermann, J. Böttcher, H. Roehle, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, M. Mei, I. Z. Kozma, and R. Holzwarth, in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME6.

Schell, M.

Schlak, M.

Stanze, D.

Suen, J.

E. R. Brown, Kimani K. Williams, W. Zhang, J. Suen, H. Lu, J. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 8, 402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, Z. D.

Venghaus, H.

Wilk, R.

B. Sartorius, H. Künzel, K. Biermann, J. Böttcher, H. Roehle, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, M. Mei, I. Z. Kozma, and R. Holzwarth, in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME6.

Williams, Kimani K.

E. R. Brown, Kimani K. Williams, W. Zhang, J. Suen, H. Lu, J. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 8, 402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

E. R. Brown, Kimani K. Williams, W. Zhang, J. Suen, H. Lu, J. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 8, 402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zide, J.

E. R. Brown, Kimani K. Williams, W. Zhang, J. Suen, H. Lu, J. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 8, 402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, A. C. Gossard, and E. R. Brown, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 51908 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Phys.

J. Mangeney and P. Crozat, C. R. Phys. 9, 142 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol.

E. R. Brown, Kimani K. Williams, W. Zhang, J. Suen, H. Lu, J. Zide, and A. C. Gossard, IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 8, 402 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

D. C. Driscoll, M. P. Hanson, E. Muller, and A. C. Gossard, J. Cryst. Growth 251, 243 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett.

E. R. Brown, A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Navi, and J. E. Bjarnason, Microwave Opt. Technol. Lett. 48, 524 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

M. Lampert and P. Mark, Current Injection in Solids (Academic, 1970).

B. Sartorius, H. Künzel, K. Biermann, J. Böttcher, H. Roehle, R. Wilk, M. Mikulics, M. Koch, M. Mei, I. Z. Kozma, and R. Holzwarth, in Optical Terahertz Science and Technology, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper ME6.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for InGaAs photoconductive switch generating THz power. The mechanical chopper provides a reference signal for the lock-in amplifier.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

I–V curve of Er As : In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As device at 80, 150, 200, and 250 K.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average output THz power of device versus applied bias voltage in free space at 77 K.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) THz output power spectral density with fitted curves obtained from THz filter bank and normalized over the bandwidths. (b) Photocarrier lifetimes of the Er As : In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As device at different bias voltages.

Equations (1)

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P L = P p ( 1 1 + ( 2 π f τ L ) 2 ) ( 1 1 + ( 2 π f τ RC ) 2 ) .

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