Abstract

Optical switching with single nanosecond laser pulses of 532nm wavelength is reported using high-efficiency optical axis gratings made with a nematic liquid crystal doped with an azobenzene dye. The azobenzene dye we have synthesized exhibits enhanced photosensitivity at green wavelengths, allowing for low threshold switching (10mJcm2). The dye is also characterized by fast relaxation of isomers, allowing for restoration of the diffractive properties of the grating within 100ms. Change of the diffraction efficiency of the zeroth-order beam from 10% to 70% is observed in a micrometer-thick material layer.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. M. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, N. Tabirian, T. Ikeda, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 5511, 18 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Caputo, A. Veltri, C. P. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1939 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Cincotti, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1645 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 1 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Knoll, in Organic Photochemistry and Photobiology, W.Horspool and F.Lenci, eds. (CRC Press, 2004), pp. 89.1-89.16.
  7. U. A. Hrozyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 257[583] (2008).
  8. K. Ichimura, Chem. Rev. 100, 1847 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and B. Zeldovich, Opt. Lett. 32, 169 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. J. Escuti and W. M. Jones, Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320M (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, Opt. Express 17, 1817 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, Opt. Express 17, 1817 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

U. A. Hrozyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 257[583] (2008).

2007 (2)

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and B. Zeldovich, Opt. Lett. 32, 169 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Escuti and W. M. Jones, Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320M (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

R. Caputo, A. Veltri, C. P. Umeton, and A. V. Sukhov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21, 1939 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, N. Tabirian, T. Ikeda, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 5511, 18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. Cincotti, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Ichimura, Chem. Rev. 100, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, N. Tabirian, T. Ikeda, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 5511, 18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Caputo, R.

Cincotti, G.

G. Cincotti, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, G.

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Escuti, M. J.

M. J. Escuti and W. M. Jones, Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoke, L.

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, Opt. Express 17, 1817 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. A. Hrozyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 257[583] (2008).

Hrozhyk, U. A.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hrozyk, U. A.

U. A. Hrozyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 257[583] (2008).

Ichimura, K.

K. Ichimura, Chem. Rev. 100, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

A. M. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, N. Tabirian, T. Ikeda, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 5511, 18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jones, W. M.

M. J. Escuti and W. M. Jones, Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kedziora, G.

U. A. Hrozyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 257[583] (2008).

Kimball, B.

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, Opt. Express 17, 1817 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 257[583] (2008).

Klosterman, J.

A. M. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, N. Tabirian, T. Ikeda, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 5511, 18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, H.

H. Knoll, in Organic Photochemistry and Photobiology, W.Horspool and F.Lenci, eds. (CRC Press, 2004), pp. 89.1-89.16.

Natarajan, L. V.

A. M. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, N. Tabirian, T. Ikeda, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 5511, 18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nersisyan, S.

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nersisyan, S. R.

Pagliusi, P.

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Provenzano, C.

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S.

Serak, S. V.

U. A. Hrozyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 257[583] (2008).

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steeves, D. M.

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, Opt. Express 17, 1817 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. A. Hrozyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 257[583] (2008).

Sukhov, A. V.

Sutherland, R. L.

A. M. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, N. Tabirian, T. Ikeda, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 5511, 18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tabirian, N.

A. M. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, N. Tabirian, T. Ikeda, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 5511, 18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N.

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Serak, N. Tabiryan, and B. Zeldovich, Opt. Lett. 32, 169 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

S. R. Nersisyan, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, Opt. Express 17, 1817 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. A. Hrozyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 257[583] (2008).

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tondiglia, V.

A. M. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, N. Tabirian, T. Ikeda, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 5511, 18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C. P.

Urbas, A. M.

A. M. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, N. Tabirian, T. Ikeda, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 5511, 18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Veltri, A.

Zeldovich, B.

Adv. Mater. (1)

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, and T. J. Bunning, Adv. Mater. 19, 3244 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. Provenzano, P. Pagliusi, and G. Cipparrone, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 121105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

K. Ichimura, Chem. Rev. 100, 1847 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Cincotti, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39, 1645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. Kimball, J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 18, 1 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

U. A. Hrozyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, L. Hoke, D. M. Steeves, B. Kimball, and G. Kedziora, Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 489, 257[583] (2008).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. M. Urbas, J. Klosterman, V. Tondiglia, L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, N. Tabirian, T. Ikeda, and T. J. Bunning, Proc. SPIE 5511, 18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Escuti and W. M. Jones, Proc. SPIE 6332, 63320M (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Knoll, in Organic Photochemistry and Photobiology, W.Horspool and F.Lenci, eds. (CRC Press, 2004), pp. 89.1-89.16.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Unpolarized transmission spectra of (1) a thin planar oriented layer of the LC mixture BPND-2(10%)/5CB, and (2) the zeroth order of the OAG made from the same material and having the same thickness.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The experimental setup: DM, dichroic mirror at 532 nm ; DF, dichroic filter at 532 nm ; BS1 and BS2, beam splitters; L 1 and L 2 , lenses of 400 mm and 150 mm focal length, respectively; NDF, neutral density filters; LD, laser diode providing the probe beam at λ probe = 660 nm wavelength; P, polarizer; GCF, green cutoff filter; PD1 and PD2, photodetectors; EM1, EM2, and EM3, energy meters; QWP1 and QWP2, quarter-wave plates; LCG, liquid-crystal cycloidal grating.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (c) Output energy and (b), (d) diffraction efficiency versus input pulse energy for the zeroth (1) and the 1st (2) diffracted orders. (a), (b) The quarter-wave plate QWP1 is absent, and the laser pulse incident on LCG is linearly polarized. (c), (d) The pulse is circularly polarized.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Signal of the 1st-order diffraction of the probe beam for different pump pulse energy levels. Shaded area in the background shows the input pulse profile. (b) Response time as a function of pulse energy. The inset shows restoration dynamics of the diffractive state switched off by a pulse of 0.7 mJ input energy.

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