Abstract

Ultrahigh sensitivity detection of particles in solution implies the ability to detect at very low concentrations. At the single-particle level, this is achieved through fluorescence detection, reaching down to single fluorophores. Sensitivity may also be improved by concentrating many particles into a compact cluster, thus “integrating” the signal of many particles. We show how both ways can be combined on an optofluidic chip in a fully planar geometry utilizing counterpropagating liquid-core waveguide modes to form a loss-based optical trap. This all-optical concentrator can increase the concentration of particles by more than 2 orders of magnitude and also provides a convenient, nondispersive means of transport for particle ensembles.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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2009 (2)

A. Terray, H. D. Ladouceur, M. Hammond, and S. J. Hart, Opt. Express 17, 2024 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

2007 (3)

A. Hawkins and H. Schmidt, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 17 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 184103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Cordovez, D. Psaltis, and D. Erickson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 024102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

S. Song and A. Singh, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384, 41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Cran-McGreehin, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, Lab Chip 6, 1122 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 183902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

P.-A. Auroux, D. Iossifidis, D. Reyes, and A. Manz, Anal. Chem. 74, 2637 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1981 (1)

H. M. Berman and P. R. Young, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 10, 87 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970 (1)

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Ashkin, A.

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Auroux, P.-A.

P.-A. Auroux, D. Iossifidis, D. Reyes, and A. Manz, Anal. Chem. 74, 2637 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barber, J. P.

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berman, H. M.

H. M. Berman and P. R. Young, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 10, 87 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blakely, J. T.

Buican, T. N.

Conti, C.

C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 183902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cordovez, B.

B. Cordovez, D. Psaltis, and D. Erickson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 024102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cran-McGreehin, S.

S. Cran-McGreehin, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, Lab Chip 6, 1122 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crissman, H. A.

Deamer, D. W.

S. Küehn, P. Measor, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Loss-based optical trap for on-chip particle analysis,” Lab Chip (to be published).

Dholakia, K.

S. Cran-McGreehin, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, Lab Chip 6, 1122 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erickson, D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 184103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Cordovez, D. Psaltis, and D. Erickson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 024102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, R.

Hammond, M.

Hart, S. J.

Hawkins, A.

H. Schmidt and A. Hawkins, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 3 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hawkins and H. Schmidt, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 17 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawkins, A. R.

P. Measor, S. Kühn, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 33, 672 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Küehn, P. Measor, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Loss-based optical trap for on-chip particle analysis,” Lab Chip (to be published).

Iossifidis, D.

P.-A. Auroux, D. Iossifidis, D. Reyes, and A. Manz, Anal. Chem. 74, 2637 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jonáscaron, A.

A. Jonáscaron and P. Zemánek, Electrophoresis 29, 4813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, M.

Klug, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, T. F.

S. Cran-McGreehin, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, Lab Chip 6, 1122 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Küehn, S.

S. Küehn, P. Measor, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Loss-based optical trap for on-chip particle analysis,” Lab Chip (to be published).

Kühn, S.

Ladouceur, H. D.

Lipson, M.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lunt, E. J.

P. Measor, S. Kühn, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 33, 672 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Küehn, P. Measor, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Loss-based optical trap for on-chip particle analysis,” Lab Chip (to be published).

Mandal, S.

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 184103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Manz, A.

P.-A. Auroux, D. Iossifidis, D. Reyes, and A. Manz, Anal. Chem. 74, 2637 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, J. C.

Measor, P.

P. Measor, S. Kühn, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 33, 672 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Küehn, P. Measor, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Loss-based optical trap for on-chip particle analysis,” Lab Chip (to be published).

Moore, S. D.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, B. S.

P. Measor, S. Kühn, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 33, 672 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Küehn, P. Measor, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Loss-based optical trap for on-chip particle analysis,” Lab Chip (to be published).

Psaltis, D.

B. Cordovez, D. Psaltis, and D. Erickson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 024102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reyes, D.

P.-A. Auroux, D. Iossifidis, D. Reyes, and A. Manz, Anal. Chem. 74, 2637 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruocco, G.

C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 183902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salzman, G. C.

Schmidt, B. S.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, H.

H. Schmidt and A. Hawkins, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 3 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Measor, S. Kühn, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Opt. Lett. 33, 672 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hawkins and H. Schmidt, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 17 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Küehn, P. Measor, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Loss-based optical trap for on-chip particle analysis,” Lab Chip (to be published).

Singh, A.

S. Song and A. Singh, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384, 41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sinton, D.

Smyth, M. J.

Song, S.

S. Song and A. Singh, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384, 41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, C. C.

Terray, A.

Trillo, S.

C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 183902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, A. H. J.

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, D.

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Young, P. R.

H. M. Berman and P. R. Young, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 10, 87 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zemánek, P.

A. Jonáscaron and P. Zemánek, Electrophoresis 29, 4813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

S. Song and A. Singh, Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384, 41 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

P.-A. Auroux, D. Iossifidis, D. Reyes, and A. Manz, Anal. Chem. 74, 2637 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. (1)

H. M. Berman and P. R. Young, Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 10, 87 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 184103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, J. P. Barber, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 211111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Cordovez, D. Psaltis, and D. Erickson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 024102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electrophoresis (1)

A. Jonáscaron and P. Zemánek, Electrophoresis 29, 4813 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (2)

S. Küehn, P. Measor, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, “Loss-based optical trap for on-chip particle analysis,” Lab Chip (to be published).

S. Cran-McGreehin, T. F. Krauss, and K. Dholakia, Lab Chip 6, 1122 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microfluid. Nanofluid. (2)

A. Hawkins and H. Schmidt, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 17 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt and A. Hawkins, Microfluid. Nanofluid. 4, 3 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

A. H. J. Yang, S. D. Moore, B. S. Schmidt, M. Klug, M. Lipson, and D. Erickson, Nature 457, 71 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Conti, G. Ruocco, and S. Trillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 183902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ashkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 156 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (1208 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Design layout of the ARROW optofluidic analysis platform. Particles are trapped by counterpropagating trapping beams inside the hollow waveguide at an intersection with a solid-core waveguide. (b), (c) Electron micrographs of waveguide cross sections overlayed with guided-beam profiles. (d) Photograph of a chip with reservoirs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Illustration of the working principle of the loss-based particle concentrator. (b) Spatial dependence of the trapping forces and potentials for a particles ensemble (solid curves, for 120 1 μ m microbeads of σ sca , Mie = 1.1 μ m 2 ) and a single particle (broken curve) with typical loss and power parameters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Concentrated 1 μ m particles at a waveguide intersection. (b) Temporal evolution of the fluorescence signal during the optical concentration of 500 nm particles. Insets, fluorescence snapshots of a single particle and the final particle ensemble, single-frame excerpts from Media 1.

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