Abstract

We report the results of a series of underwater imaging experiments in the visible, carried out at ENEA (Frascati, Rome) by using a bistatic, amplitude-modulated laser optical radar system. In these experiments, polarimetry is used for minimizing the water backscattering signal and improving the accuracy of phase measurements directly related to distance. The presented technique enables one to obtain 3D images of underwater real scenes characterized by high quality, space resolution, and contrast. The results are of remarkable importance for applications in the 3D imaging of submerged objects, such as submarine archaeological sites.

© 2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2008 (1)

2007 (1)

L. Bartolini, L. De Dominicis, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. Fornetti, M. Francucci, M. Guarneri, E. Paglia, C. Poggi, and R. Ricci, Proc. SPIE 6618, 0I1 (2007).

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2000 (1)

F. Pellen, X. Intes, P. Olivard, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, J. Phys. D 33, 349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1995 (1)

L. Mullen, A. J. C. Vieira, P. R. Herczfeld, and V. M. Contarino, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2370 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

Bartolini, L.

Cariou, J.

F. Pellen, X. Intes, P. Olivard, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, J. Phys. D 33, 349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Concannon, B.

Contarino, V. M.

L. Mullen, A. J. C. Vieira, P. R. Herczfeld, and V. M. Contarino, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2370 (1995).
[CrossRef]

De Dominicis, L.

Ferri de Collibus, M.

Fornetti, G.

Francucci, M.

L. Bartolini, L. De Dominicis, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. Fornetti, M. Francucci, M. Guarneri, M. Nuvoli, E. Paglia, and R. Ricci, Opt. Lett. 33, 2584 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bartolini, L. De Dominicis, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. Fornetti, M. Francucci, M. Guarneri, E. Paglia, C. Poggi, and R. Ricci, Proc. SPIE 6618, 0I1 (2007).

Fry, E. S.

Gilbert, G. D.

Guarneri, M.

Guern, Y.

F. Pellen, X. Intes, P. Olivard, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, J. Phys. D 33, 349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Herczfeld, P. R.

L. Mullen, A. J. C. Vieira, P. R. Herczfeld, and V. M. Contarino, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2370 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Intes, X.

F. Pellen, X. Intes, P. Olivard, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, J. Phys. D 33, 349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Katsev, I. L.

Laux, A.

Le Brun, G.

G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Le Jeune, B.

G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lotrian, J.

F. Pellen, X. Intes, P. Olivard, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, J. Phys. D 33, 349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mullen, L.

L. Mullen, A. Laux, B. Concannon, E. P. Zege, I. L. Katsev, and A. S. Prikhach, Appl. Opt. 43, 3874 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Mullen, A. J. C. Vieira, P. R. Herczfeld, and V. M. Contarino, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2370 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nuvoli, M.

Olivard, P.

F. Pellen, X. Intes, P. Olivard, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, J. Phys. D 33, 349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paglia, E.

Pellen, F.

F. Pellen, X. Intes, P. Olivard, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, J. Phys. D 33, 349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pernicka, J. C.

Poggi, C.

L. Bartolini, L. De Dominicis, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. Fornetti, M. Francucci, M. Guarneri, E. Paglia, C. Poggi, and R. Ricci, Proc. SPIE 6618, 0I1 (2007).

L. Bartolini, L. De Dominicis, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. Fornetti, M. Guarneri, E. Paglia, C. Poggi, and R. Ricci, Appl. Opt. 44, 7130 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pope, R. M.

Prikhach, A. S.

Ricci, R.

Sogandares, F. M.

Vieira, A. J. C.

L. Mullen, A. J. C. Vieira, P. R. Herczfeld, and V. M. Contarino, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2370 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zege, E. P.

Appl. Opt. (5)

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

L. Mullen, A. J. C. Vieira, P. R. Herczfeld, and V. M. Contarino, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 43, 2370 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

F. Pellen, X. Intes, P. Olivard, Y. Guern, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, J. Phys. D 33, 349 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

L. Bartolini, L. De Dominicis, M. Ferri de Collibus, G. Fornetti, M. Francucci, M. Guarneri, E. Paglia, C. Poggi, and R. Ricci, Proc. SPIE 6618, 0I1 (2007).

Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

G. Le Brun, B. Le Jeune, J. Cariou, and J. Lotrian, Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 455 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of experimental apparatus. PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Linear phase profiles of a ladder ( 10 cm × 4 cm ) immersed in clean (tap) and turbid water at 1.5 m from receiver by cross-polarized (VH) and copolarized (VV) schemes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3D images of the ladder immersed in clean (tap) and turbid water at 1.5 m from receiver by cross-polarized (VH) and copolarized (VV) working schemes.

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